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A disturbance of function, structure, or both, resulting from a genetic or embryologic failure in development or from exogenous factors such as poison, trauma, or disease.
adjustment d.'s 1. a class of mental and behavioral d.'s in which the development of symptoms is related to the presence of some environmental stressor or life event and is expected to remit when the stress ceases; 2. a d. whose essential feature is a maladaptive reaction to an identifiable psychological stress, or stressors, that occurs within weeks of the onset of the stressors and persists for up to six months; the maladaptive nature of the reaction is indicated by impairment in occupational (including school) functioning, or in usual social activities or relationships with others, or with symptoms that are in excess of a normal or expectable reaction to the stressor.
affective d.'s a class of mental d.'s characterized by a disturbance in mood.
affective personality d. a disturbance of feelings or mood expressed as a milder form of depression and related emotional features that color the whole psychic life and for which psychosocial stressors are believed to play the major role.
antisocial personality d. a personality d. characterized by a history of continuous and chronic antisocial behavior with disregard for and violation of the rights of others, beginning before the age of 15; early childhood signs include chronic lying, stealing, fighting, and truancy; in adolescence there may be unusually early or aggressive sexual behavior, excessive drinking, and use of illicit drugs, such behavior continuing in adulthood.
anxiety d.'s a category of interrelated mental illnesses involving anxiety reactions in response to stress. The types include: 1) generalized anxiety, by far the most prevalent condition, which strikes slightly more females than males, mostly in the 20-35 age group; 2) panic d., in which a person suffers repeated panic attacks. Some 2-5 percent of Americans are subject to this ailment, about twice as many women as men; 3) obsessive-compulsive d., afflicting 2-3 percent of the U.S. population. About two-thirds of these patients go on to experience a major depressive episode; 4) posttraumatic stress disorder, most frequent among combat veterans or survivors of major physical trauma; and 5) the phobias (e.g., fear of snakes, crowds, confinement, heights, etc.), which on a minor scale affect about one in eight people in the U.S. Drugs that have proven effective against anxiety d.'s are beta blockers, which act on adrenaline receptors; anxiolytics; antidepressants; and serotonergic drugs. Regular exercise has also proved beneficial.
asthenic personality d. asthenic personality
attention deficit d. a d. of attention and impulse control with specific DSM criteria, appearing in childhood and sometimes persisting to adulthood. Hyperactivity may be a feature, but is not necessary for the diagnosis. Previously erroneously identified as minimal brain dysfunction.
attention deficit hyperactivity d. a disorder of childhood and adolescence manifested at home, in school, and in social situations by developmentally inappropriate degrees of inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity; also called hyperactivity or hyperactive child syndrome.hyperactive child syndrome;
autistic d. autism, infantile autism
autonomic d. disorganization of autonomic processes.
avoidant d. of adolescence avoidant d. of childhood
avoidant d. of childhood a mental d. occurring in childhood or adolescence characterized by an excessive shrinking away from contact with people who are unfamiliar.avoidant d. of adolescence;
avoidant personality d. See avoidant personality.
behavior d. general term used to denote mental illness or psychological dysfunction, specifically those mental, emotional, or behavioral subclasses for which organic correlates do not exist. See antisocial personality d.
bipolar d. an affective d. characterized by the occurrence of alternating periods of euphoria (mania) and depression.manic-depressive psychosis;
body dysmorphic d. a psychosomatic (somatoform) d. characterized by preoccupation with some imagined defect in appearance in a normal-appearing person.dysmorphophobia;
borderline personality d. a mental d. in which the symptoms are not continually psychotic yet are not strictly neurotic: may include impulsivity and unpredictability, unstable interpersonal relationships, inappropriate or uncontrolled anger, identity disturbances, rapid shifts of mood, suicidal acts, self-mutilations, job and marital instability, chronic feelings of emptiness or boredom, and intolerance of being alone.
character d. a term referring to a group of behavioral d.'s, now replaced by a more general term, personality d., of which character d.'s are now a subclass.
conduct d. a mental d. of childhood or adolescence characterized by a persistent pattern of of violating societal norms and the rights of others; children with the d. may exhibit physical aggression, cruelty to animals, vandalism and robbery, along with truancy, cheating, and lying. See borderline personality d.
conversion d. a mental d. in which an unconscious emotional conflict is expressed as an alteration or loss of physical functioning, usually controlled by the voluntary nervous system.
cumulative trauma d.'s (CTD) chronic d.'s involving muscle inflammation and nerve damage, often resulting from work-related physical activities.CTDs now account for half of all occupational illnesses in the U.S. The ailments, including repetitive motion disorders and carpal tunnel syndrome, result when the body is subjected to direct pressure, vibration, or repetitive movements for prolonged periods of time, as in the use of computer keyboards for data entry or order processing. Carpal tunnel syndrome, a swelling of the tendons in the wrist sheathing the median nerve, now accounts for 40% of all worker compensation claims and was called "the occupational disease of the 1980s." It results in temporary or permanent numbness, pain in the fingers, and loss or impairment of the ability to grasp. Generally CTDs are treated with heat or cold, corticosteroid injections, immobilization, or physical therapy, but surgery is also performed-over 100,000 operations each year for carpal tunnel syndrome alone. Prevention appears to be the best approach. Workers at risk of CTDs are advised to suspend the responsible activity for 15 minutes every 2 hours. Physicans can play a role by becoming involved in ergonomic assessments of the workplace.
cyclothymic d. an affective d. characterized by mood swings including periods of hypomania and depression; a form of depressive disorder.
cyclothymic personality d. cyclothymic personality
delusional d. a severe mental d. characterized by the presence of delusions. The delusions may be related to paranoid, grandiose, somatic, or erotic themes.
dependent personality d. asthenic personality
depersonalization d. schizophrenia
dissociative d.'s a group of mental d.'s characterized by a disturbance in functions of identity, memory, and consciousness; includes multiple personality d., psychogenic fugue, psychogenic amnesia, and depersonalization d.
dysthymic d. a chronic disturbance of mood characterized by mild depression or loss of interest in usual activities. See depression.
eating d.'s a class of mental d.'s including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, pica, and rumination d. of infancy.
emotional d. See mental illness, behavior d.
erotomanic type of paranoid d. the false belief that one is loved by another such as a movie star or a casual acquaintance.
factitious d. a mental d. in which the individual intentionally produces symptoms of illness or feigns illness for psychological reasons rather than for environmental goals.
familial bipolar mood d. bipolar mood d. commonly inherited as an autosomal dominant [MIM*125480] trait and also occasionally as an X-linked one [MIM*309200].
functional d. a physical d. with no known or detectable organic basis to explain the symptoms. See behavior d., neurosis.dynamic disease, functional disease, functional illness;
Gaucher d. Gaucher's disease
gender identity d.'s a class of mental d.'s characterized by an incongruity between an assigned culturally determined set of attitudes, behavior patterns, and physical characteristics associated with masculinity or femininity and gender identity. See also transsexualism.
generalized anxiety d. chronic, repeated episodes of anxiety reactions; a psychological d. in which anxiety or morbid fear and dread accompanied by autonomic changes are prominent features. See anxiety.
grandiose type of paranoid d. a delusion in which the person believes that he or she possesses some great but unrecognized talent or insight, or has made an important discovery, with subsequent efforts toward official or public recognition.
Hartnup d. Hartnup disease
histrionic personality d. a d. characterized by a persuasive pattern of excessive and shallow emotionality, attention-seeking, demanding of approval and reassurance, beginning in early childhood and present in a variety of contexts; also called hysterical personality disorder.
identity d. a mental d. of childhood or adolescence in which one suffers severe distress regarding one's ability to reconcile aspects of the self into a coherent acceptable sense of self.
immune complex d. immune complex disease
immunoproliferative d.'s d.'s in which there is a continuing proliferation of cells of the immunocyte complex associated with autoallergic disturbances and gamma-globulin abnormalities such as in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, "macroglobulinemias," and multiple myeloma.
impulse control d. a class of mental d.'s characterized by an individual's failure to resist an impulse to perform some act harmful to himself or to others; includes pathological gambling, pedophilia, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania, intermittent and isolated explosive d.'s.
induced psychotic d. a severe mental disorder brought about by a toxic agent such as a drug or hallucinogen. See psychosis.
intermittent explosive d. an uncommon disorder that begins in early childhood, characterized by repeated acts of violent, aggressive behavior in otherwise normal persons that is markedly out of proportion to the event that provokes it.dyscontrol, episodic dyscontrol syndrome;
isolated explosive d. a d. of impulse control characterized by a single episode of failure to resist a violent, externally directed act which had serious impact on others.
jealous type of paranoid d. the false belief that one's spouse or lover is unfaithful and leading to repeated confrontation, or the taking of extraordinary steps to intervene in the imagined infidelity.
kinky-hair d. kinky-hair disease
late luteal phase dysphoric d. premenstrual syndrome
LDL receptor d. abnormality in clearance of LDL from the plasma due to abnormality in LDL receptor activity; causes hypercholesterolemia.
major mood d. See bipolar d., affective psychosis, endogenous depression, dysthymia.
manic-depressive d. obsolete term for one of the mood disorders; i.e., bipolar disorder, depression; affective psychosis, affective disorder, bipolar disorder, and endogenous depression.
mental d. a psychological syndrome or behavioral pattern that is associated with either subjective distress or objective impairment. See also mental illness, behavior d.
mood d.'s a group of mental disorders involving a disturbance of mood, accompanied by either a full or partial manic or depressive syndrome that is not due to any other physical or mental disorder. Mood refers to a prolonged emotion that colors the whole psychic life; it generally involves either depression or elation; e.g., manic episode, major depressive episode, bipolar disorders, and depressive disorder (see separate entries for each).Established in 1987 for the revised edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III, this category includes types of depression (formerly unipolar depression) and manic depression (formerly bipolar depression), as well as conditions with cyclic patterns, such as seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Many of the mood disorders, which have proven unresponsive to traditional psychological talk therapies, are highly responsive to treatment with drugs.
multiple personality d. a sudden, gradual, transient, or chronic psychological disorder whose essential feature is a disturbance or alteration in the normally integrated functions of identity, memory, or consciousness. See also multiple personality.
narcissistic personality d. a psychological d. with a pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior), hypersensitivity to the evaluation of others, and lack of empathy that begins by early adulthood and is manifested in a variety of contexts.
neuropsychologic d. a disturbance of mental function due to brain trauma, associated with one of more of the following: neurocognitive, psychotic, neurotic, behavioral, or psychophysiologic manifestations, or mental impairment. See also mental illness.
obsessive-compulsive d. a type of anxiety d. whose essential feature is recurrent obsessions, persistent, intrusive ideas, thoughts, impulses or images, or compulsions (repetitive, purposeful, and intentional behaviors performed in response to an obsession) sufficiently severe to cause marked distress, be time-consuming, or to significantly interfere with the individual's normal routine, occupational functioning, or usual social activities or relationships with others. See also obsessive-compulsive personality d.obsessive-compulsive neurosis;
obsessive-compulsive personality d. a psychological d. with a pervasive pattern of inflexible perfectionism which begins by early adulthood as indicated by many of the following symptoms: (1) an unattainable perfectionism with overly strict standards which often make it impossible to complete a task; (2) preoccupation with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or scheduling to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost; (3) unreasonable insistence that others submit to exactly his or her way of doing things; (4) an unnecessary, excessive devotion to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships; (5) rumination to the point of indecisiveness; (6) overconscientiousness about matters of morality, ethics, or values; (7) restricted expression of affection; (8) lack of generosity in giving time, money, or gifts when no personal gain is likely to result; and (9) an inability to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value.obsessional neurosis;
oppositional d. a mental d. of childhood or adolescence marked by a pattern of disobedient, negativistic, and provocative opposition to authority figures.
organic mental d. a psychological, cognitive, or behavioral abnormality associated with transient or permanent dysfunction of the brain, usually characterized by the presence of an organic mental syndrome.
overanxious d. a mental d. of childhood or adolescence marked by excessive worrying and fearful behavior not related specifically to separation or due to recent stress.
panic d. recurrent panic attacks that occur unpredictably. See generalized anxiety d.
paranoid d. delusion
paranoid personality d. a personality d. that is less debilitating than is the paranoid or delusional paranoid d.; the essential feature is a pervasive and unwarranted tendency, beginning in early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, to misinterpret the actions of others as deliberately exploitive, harmful, demeaning, or threatening.
persecutory type of paranoid d. one of the most common of the types of paranoid disorders, it involves a single theme or series of connected themes, such as being conspired against, cheated, spied on, followed, poisoned or drugged, maligned, harassed, or obstructed in the pursuit of long-term goals; small slights may be exaggerated and become the focus of a delusional system. See paranoia. Cf. paranoid personality d.
personality d. general term for a group of behavioral d.'s characterized by usually lifelong, ingrained, maladaptive patterns of deviant behavior, life style, and social adjustment that are different in quality from psychotic and neurotic symptoms; former designations for individuals with these personality d.'s were psychopath and sociopath. See also antisocial personality d.
pervasive developmental d. a class of mental disorders of infancy, childhood, or adolescence characterized by distortions in the development of the multiple basic psychological functions involved in the development of social skills and language.
plasma iodoprotein d. See familial goiter.
posttraumatic stress d. development of characteristic symptoms following a psychologically traumatic event that is generally outside the range of usual human experience; symptoms include numbed responsiveness to environmental stimuli, a variety of autonomic and cognitive dysfunctions, and dysphoria.
psychogenic pain d. a d. in which the principal complaint is pain that is out of proportion to objective findings and that is related to psychological factors.
psychosomatic d. , psychophysiologic d. a d. characterized by physical symptoms of psychic origin, usually involving a single organ system innervated by the autonomic nervous system; physiological and organic changes stem from a sustained disturbance.
reactive attachment d. a mental d. of infancy or early childhood characterized by disturbed social relatedness; thought to be caused by grossly pathologic care.
REM behavior d. a d. characterized by lack of the atonia of voluntary muscles that normally occurs in REM sleep.
rumination d. a mental d. occurring in infancy characterized by repeated regurgitation of food; usually accompanied by weight loss or failure to gain weight.
schizophreniform d. (skiz´o-fren´I-form) a d. whose essential features are identical with those of schizophrenia, with the exception that the duration including prodromal, active, and residual phases is less than six months.
seasonal affective d. (SAD) a depressive mood disorder that occurs at approximately the same time year after year and spontaneously remits at the same time each year. The most common type is winter depression and it is characterized by morning hypersomnia, low energy, increased appetite, weight gain, and carbohydrate craving, all of which remit in the spring.
separation anxiety d. a mental d. occurring in childhood characterized by excessive anxiety when the child is separated from someone to whom the child is attached, usually a parent.
shared psychotic d. folie à deux
sleep terror d. See night-terrors.
somatization d. a mental d. characterized by presentation of a complicated medical history and of physical symptoms referring to a variety of organ systems, but without a detectable or known organic basis. See conversion, hysteria.
somatoform d. a group of d.'s in which physical symptoms suggesting physical d.'s for which there are no demonstrable organic findings or known physiologic mechanisms, and for which there is positive evidence, or a strong presumption that the symptoms are linked to psychological factors; e.g., hysteria, conversion disorder, hypochondriasis, and pain disorder.
substance abuse d.'s a class of mental d.'s in which behavioral and biological changes are associated with regular use of alcohol, drugs, and related substances that affect the central nervous system and personal and social functioning.
substance-induced organic mental d.'s mental d.'s caused by use of drugs, e.g., cocaine.
thought process d. an intellectual function symptom of schizophrenia, manifested by irrelevance and incoherence of verbal productions ranging from simple blocking and mild circumstantiality to total loosening of associations.
visceral d. nomenclature used in reference to psychosomatic d.
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