alcohol

alcohol (al´ko-hol)

1. One of a series of organic chemical compounds in which a hydrogen (H) attached to carbon is replaced by a hydroxyl (OH); a.'s react with acids to form esters and with alkali metals to form alcoholates. For individual a.'s not listed here, see specific name. 2. CH3CH2OH;made from sugar, starch, and other carbohydrates by fermentation with yeast, and synthetically from ethylene or acetylene. It has been used in beverages and as a solvent, vehicle, and preservative; medicinally, it is used externally as a rubefacient, coolant, and disinfectant, and internally as an analgesic, stomachic, sedative, and antipyretic.ethanol, ethyl alcohol, grain a., rectified spirit, wine spirit; 3. The azeotropic mixture of CH3CH2OH and water (92.3% by weight of ethanol at 15.56°C). [Ar. al, the, + kohl, fine antimonial powder, the term being applied first to a fine powder, then, to anything impalpable (spirit)]
absolute a. 1. 100% a., water having been removed;anhydrous a; 2. a. with a minimum admixture of water, at most 1%.dehydrated a;
acid a. ethyl a. (70%) containing 1% hydrochloric acid.
anhydrous a. absolute a. (1)
bile a. one of a group of polyhydroxylated a.'s derived from cholestane.
dehydrated a. absolute a. (2)
denatured a. ethyl a. rendered unfit for consumption as a beverage by the addition of one or several chemicals for commercial purposes (e.g., sucrose octa-acetate).industrial methylated spirit, methylated spirit;
dihydric a. a. containing two OH groups in its molecule; e.g., ethylene glycol.
dilute a. an a. in water mixtures of various concentrations, e.g., 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 45, 25, and 20% v/v of C2H5OH.
fatty a. a long chain a., analogous to the fatty acids, of which the fatty a. may be viewed as a reduction product; e.g., octadecanol from stearic acid. It is often found esterified in waxes.wax a;
grain a. alcohol (2)
monohydric a. an a. containing one OH group.
multiple a. an a. containing more than one OH group.
polyoxyethylene a.'s used as emulsifying and wetting agents, antistats, solubilizers, defoamers, and other industrial applications. Laureth 9 as spermaticide; pharmaceutic aid (surfactant).
primary a. an a. characterized by the univalent radical, -CH2OH.
pyroligneous a. methyl alcohol
rubbing a. an alcoholic mixture intended for external use; it usually contains 70% by volume of absolute a. or isopropyl a.; the remainder consists of water, denaturants (with and without coal tar colors), and perfume oils; used as a rubefacient for muscle and joint aches and pains.
secondary a. an a. characterized by the bivalent atom group,
sugar a. See sugar alcohol.
tertiary a. an a. characterized by the trivalent atom group,
trihydric a. an a. containing three OH groups; e.g., glycerol.
unsaturated a.'s those a.'s whose carbon chains contain one or more double or triple bonds.
wax a. fatty a

 

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