failure (fal´yur)

The state of insufficiency or nonperformance.
acute respiratory f. (ARF) loss of pulmonary function either acute or chronic that results in hypoxemia or hypercarbia.
backward heart f. a concept (formerly considered mutually exclusive of forward heart f.) that maintains that the phenomena of congestive heart f. result from passive engorgement of the veins caused by a "backward" rise in pressure proximal to the failing cardiac chambers. Cf. forward heart f.
cardiac f. heart f. (1)
congestive heart f. heart f. (1)
coronary f. acute coronary insufficiency.
electrical f. f. in which the cardiac inadequacy is secondary to disturbance of the electrical impulse.
forward heart f. a concept (formerly considered mutually exclusive of backward heart f.) that maintains that the phenomena of congestive heart f. result from the inadequate cardiac output, and especially from the consequent inadequacy of renal blood flow with resulting retention of sodium and water. Cf. backward heart f.
heart f. 1. inadequacy of the heart so that as a pump it fails to maintain the circulation of blood, with the result that congestion and edema develop in the tissues;cardiac f., cardiac insufficiency, congestive heart f., myocardial insufficiency; See also forward heart f., backward heart f., right ventricular f., left ventricular f. 2. resulting clinical syndromes including shortness of breath, pitting edema, enlarged tender liver, engorged neck veins, and pulmonary rales in various combinations.
high output f. heart f. in which, despite relative myocardial insufficiency and consequent congestive heart f., the cardiac output is maintained at normal or supernormal levels, as is sometimes seen in emphysema, thyrotoxicosis, etc.
left-sided heart f. inability of the left heart to maintain its circulatory load with corresponding rise in pressure in the pulmonary circulation usually with pulmonary congestion and ultimately pulmonary edema.
left ventricular f. congestive heart f. manifested by signs of pulmonary congestion and edema, i.e., dyspnea, rales, pulmonary edema, etc.
low output f. heart f. in which the cardiac output is subnormal, as is usually seen in f. due to coronary, hypertensive, or valvular heart disease.
pacemaker f. f. of an artificial pacemaker to generate or deliver effective stimuli to the myocardium.
power f. pump f
pump f. a term used to emphasize mechanical default of the heart as a pump; in acute myocardial infarction, pump f. signifies congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, or cardiogenic shock. Cf. electrical f. power f;
renal f. loss of renal function, either acute or chronic, that results in increased severe urea and creatinine.
right ventricular f. congestive heart f. manifested by distention of the neck veins, enlargement of the liver, and dependent edema due to pump f. of the right ventricle.
secondary f. 1. f. of the function of an organ as a result of antecedent pathology elsewhere; 2. decreasing responsiveness to a drug after an initial satisfactory response, usually occurring several months after initiation of treatment.
f. to thrive a condition in which an infant's weight gain and growth is far below usual levels for age.


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