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ganglion, pl. ganglia ganglions (gang´gle-on, -gle-a, -gle-onz)
1. [NA] Originally, any group of nerve cell bodies in the central or peripheral nervous system; currently, an aggregation of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system.nerve g., neural g., neuroganglion; 2. A cyst containing mucopolysaccharide-rich fluid within fibrous tissue or, occasionally, muscle bone or a semilunar cartilage; usually attached to a tendon sheath in the hand, wrist, or foot, or connected with the underlying joint.myxoid cyst, peritendinitis serosa, synovial cyst; [G. a swelling or knot]
aberrant g. a collection of nerve cells sometimes found on a posterior spinal nerve root between the spinal g. and the spinal cord.
acousticofacial g. a primordial ganglionic cell mass in young embryos which later separates into the acoustic or spiral g. of the vestibulocochlear (eighth cranial) nerve and the geniculate g. of the facial (seventh cranial) nerve.
Acrel's g. 1. pseudoganglion on the posterior interosseous nerve on the dorsal aspect of the wrist joint; 2. a cyst on a tendon of an extensor muscle at the level of the wrist.
Andersch's g. inferior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve
aorticorenal ganglia a semidetached portion of the celiac ganglia, at the origin of each renal artery; contains the sympathetic neurons innervating the vasculature of the kidney.ganglia aorticorenalia [NA] ;
gang´lia aorticorena´lia [NA] aorticorenal ganglia
Arnold's g. otic g
auditory g. spiral g. of cochlea
Auerbach's ganglia collections of parasympathetic nerve cells in the myenteric plexus. See myenteric plexus.
auricular g. otic g
autonomic ganglia visceral ganglia. See autonomic nervous system.
ganglia of autonomic plexuses autonomic ganglia lying in plexuses of autonomic fibers, e.g., the celiac and inferior mesenteric ganglia of the sympathetic, and the small parasympathetic ganglia of the myenteric plexus.ganglia plexuum autonomicorum [NA] ;
basal ganglia originally, all of the large masses of gray matter at the base of the cerebral hemisphere; currently, the striate body (caudate and lentiform nuclei) and cell groups associated with the striate body, such as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra.
Bezold's g. an aggregation of nerve cells in the interatrial septum.
Bochdalek's g. a g. of the plexus of the dental nerve lying in the maxilla just above the root of the canine tooth.
Bock's g. carotid g
Böttcher's g. g. on the cochlear nerve in the internal acoustic meatus.
cardiac ganglia parasympathetic ganglia of the cardiac plexus lying between the arch of the aorta and the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery.ganglia cardiaca [NA], Wrisberg's ganglia;
gang´lia cardi´aca [NA] cardiac ganglia
carotid g. a small ganglionic swelling on filaments from the internal carotid plexus, lying on the undersurface of the carotid artery in the cavernous sinus.Bock's g., Laumonier's g;
celiac ganglia the largest and highest group of prevertebral sympathetic ganglia, located on the superior part of the abdominal aorta, on either side of the origin of the celiac artery; contains sympathetic neurons whose unmyelinated postganglionic axons innervate the stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, kidney, small intestine, and ascending and transverse colon. hganglia celiaca [NA], semilunar g. (2), solar ganglia, Vieussens' ganglia, Willis' centrum nervosum;
gang´lia celi´aca [NA] celiac ganglia
g. cervica´le infe´rius inferior cervical g
g. cervica´le me´dium [NA] middle cervical g
g. cervica´le supe´rius [NA] superior cervical g
cervicothoracic g. a sympathetic trunk g. lying behind the subclavian artery near the origin of the vertebral artery, it is formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical ganglion, at the level of the seventh cervical vertebra, with the first thoracic g.g. stellatum [NA], stellate g;
g. cer´vicothora´cicum [NA] a sympathetic trunk g. lying behind the subclavian artery near the origin of the vertebral artery, at the level of the seventh cervical vertebra, close to the first thoracic g. with which it is usually fused.
g. cilia´re [NA] ciliary g
ciliary g. a small parasympathetic g. lying in the orbit between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle; it receives preganglionic innervation from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus by way of the oculomotor nerve, and in turn gives rise to postganglionic fibers that innervate the ciliary muscle and the sphincter of the iris (sphincter pupillae muscle).g. ciliare [NA], lenticular g., Schacher's g;
coccygeal g. g. impar
cochlear g. spiral g. of cochlea
Corti's g. spiral g. of cochlea
craniospinal ganglia a term collectively designating the sensory ganglia on the dorsal (posterior) roots of spinal nerves and on those cranial nerves that contain general sensory and taste fibers; also called encephalospinal ganglia.craniospinalia ganglia;
craniospinal´ia gan´glia craniospinal ganglia
diffuse g. a cystic swelling due to inflammatory effusion into one or several adjacent tendon sheaths.
dorsal root g. spinal g
Ehrenritter's g. superior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve
extracranial ganglia inferior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve
g. extracrania´le inferior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve
g. of facial nerve geniculate g
Frankenhäuser's g. uterovaginal plexus
Froriep's g. a temporary collection of nerve cells on the dorsal aspect of the hypoglossal nerve in the embryo; it represents a rudimentary sensory g.
gasserian g. trigeminal g
geniculate g. a g. of the nervus intermedius fibers conveyed by the facial nerve, located within the facial canal at the genu of the canal and containing the sensory neurons innervating the taste buds on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and a small area on the external ear.g. geniculi [NA], g. of facial nerve, g. of intermediate nerve, g. of nervus intermedius, intumescentia ganglioformis;
g. genic´uli [NA] geniculate g
Gudden's g. interpeduncular nucleus
g. haben´ulae habenular nucleus
hypogastric ganglia pelvic ganglia
g. im´par [NA] the most inferior, unpaired g. of the sympathetic trunk; inconstant.coccygeal g., Walther's g;
inferior cervical g. inferior-most of the three ganglia of the cervical portion of the sympathetic trunk, occurring at the C7 vertebral level. Most commonly, it is fused to the first thoracic sympathetic ganglion to form a stellate ganglion.g. cervicale inferius;
inferior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve the lower of two sensory g.'s on the glossopharyngeal nerve as it traverses the jugular foramen.g. inferius nervi glossopharyngei [NA], Andersch's g., extracranial ganglia, g. extracraniale, petrosal g., petrous g;
inferior mesenteric g. the lowest of the sympathetic prevertebral ganglia, located at the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery from the aorta and containing the sympathetic neurons innervating the descending and sigmoid colon.g. mesentericum inferius [NA] ;
inferior g. of vagus nerve a large sensory g. of the vagus, anterior to the internal jugular vein.g. inferius nervi vagi [NA], g. of trunk of vagus, nodose g;
g. infe´rius ner´vi glossopharyn´gei [NA] inferior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve
g. infe´rius ner´vi va´gi [NA] inferior g. of vagus nerve
intercrural g. interpeduncular nucleus
gang´lia interme´dia [NA] intermediate ganglia
intermediate ganglia small sympathetic ganglia most commonly found on the communicating branches in the cervical and lumbar region.ganglia intermedia [NA] ;
g. of intermediate nerve geniculate g
interpeduncular g. interpeduncular nucleus
intervertebral g. spinal g
intracranial g. superior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve
g. isth´mi interpeduncular nucleus
jugular g. 1. superior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve 2. superior g. of vagus nerve
Laumonier's g. carotid g
Lee's g. uterovaginal plexus
lenticular g. ciliary g
Lobstein's g. splanchnic g
Ludwig's g. a small collection of parasympathetic nerve cells in the interatrial septum.
gang´lia lumba´lia [NA] lumbar ganglia
lumbar ganglia four or more ganglia on the medial border of the psoas major muscle on either side; they form, with the sacral and coccygeal ganglia and their interganglionic rami, the abdominopelvic sympathetic trunk.ganglia lumbalia [NA] ;
Meckel's g. pterygopalatine g
g. mesenter´icum infe´rius [NA] inferior mesenteric g
g. mesenter´icum supe´rius [NA] superior mesenteric g
middle cervical g. a sympathetic g., of small size and sometimes absent; located at the level of the cricoid cartilage.g. cervicale medium [NA] ;
nasal g. pterygopalatine g
nerve g. , neural g. ganglion (1)
g. of nervus intermedius geniculate g
nodose g. inferior g. of vagus nerve
otic g. an autonomic g. situated below the foramen ovale medial to the mandibular nerve; its postganglionic, parasympathetic fibers are distributed to the parotid gland.g. oticum [NA], Arnold's g., auricular g., otoganglion;
g. o´ticum [NA] otic g
parasympathetic ganglia those ganglia of the autonomic nervous system composed of cholinergic neurons receiving afferent fibers from preganglionic visceral motor neurons in either the brainstem or the middle sacral spinal segments (S2 to S4); on the basis of their location with respect to the organs they innervate, most parasympathetic ganglia, at least outside the head, can be categorized as juxtamural or intramural ganglia. See also autonomic nervous system.
paravertebral ganglia ganglia of sympathetic trunk
pelvic ganglia the parasympathetic ganglia scattered through the pelvic plexus on either side.ganglia pelvina [NA], hypogastric ganglia;
gang´lia pelvi´na [NA] pelvic ganglia
periosteal g. a flattened subperiosteal cavity containing clear, yellow, viscous, synovial-like fluid.
petrosal g. , petrous g. inferior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve
phrenic ganglia several small autonomic ganglia contained in the plexuses accompanying the inferior phrenic arteries.ganglia phrenica [NA] ;
gang´lia phren´ica [NA] phrenic ganglia
gang´lia plex´uum autonomico´rum [NA] ganglia of autonomic plexuses
prevertebral ganglia the sympathetic ganglia (celiac, aorticorenal, superior and inferior mesenteric) lying in front of the vertebral column, as distinguished from the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk (paravertebral ganglia); these ganglia occur mostly around the origin of the major branches of the abdominal aorta; all are in the abdomino-pelvic cavity, concerned with innervation of abdomino-pelvic viscera.
pterygopalatine g. a small parasympathetic g. in the upper part of the pterygopalatine fossa whose postsynaptic fibers supply the lacrimal, nasal, palatine and pharyngeal glands.g. pterygopalatinum [NA], Meckel's g., nasal g., sphenopalatine g;
g. pterygopalati´num [NA] pterygopalatine g
Remak's ganglia 1. groups of nerve cells in the wall of the venous sinus where it joins the right atrium of the heart; 2. autonomic ganglia in nerves of the stomach.
renal ganglia small scattered sympathetic ganglia along the renal plexus.ganglia renalia [NA] ;
gang´lia rena´lia [NA] renal ganglia
Ribes' g. a small sympathetic g. situated on the anterior communicating artery of the brain.
sacral ganglia three or four ganglia on either side constituting, with the g. impar and the interganglionic rami, the pelvic portion of the sympathetic trunk.ganglia sacralia [NA] ;
gang´lia sacra´lia [NA] sacral ganglia
Scarpa's g. vestibular g
Schacher's g. ciliary g
semilunar g. 1. trigeminal g 2. celiac ganglia
sensory g. a cluster of primary sensory neurons forming a usually visible swelling in the course of a peripheral nerve or its dorsal root; such nerve cells establish the sole afferent neural connection between the sensory periphery (skin, mucous membranes of the oral and nasal cavities, muscle tissue, tendons, joint capsules, special sense organs, blood vessel walls, tissues of the internal organs) and the central nervous system; they are the cells of origin of all sensory fibers of the peripheral nervous system.
Soemmerring's g. substantia nigra
solar ganglia celiac ganglia
sphenopalatine g. pterygopalatine g
spinal g. the g. of the posterior root of each spinal segmental nerve; contains the cell bodies of the pseudounipolar primary sensory neurons whose peripheral axonal branches become part of the mixed segmental nerve, while the central axonal branches enter the spinal cord as a component of the sensory posterior root.g. spinale [NA], dorsal root g., intervertebral g;
g. spina´le [NA] spinal g
spiral g. of cochlea an elongated g. of bipolar sensory nerve cell bodies on the cochlear part of the vestibulocochlear nerve in the spiral canal of the modiolus; each g. cell gives rise to a peripheral process that passes between the layers of the bony spiral lamina to the organ of Corti, and a central axon that enters the hindbrain as a component of the inferior (cochlear) root of the eighth nerve.g. spirale cochleae [NA], auditory g., cochlear g., Corti's g., spiral cochlear g;
spiral cochlear g. spiral g. of cochlea
g. spira´le coch´leae [NA] spiral g. of cochlea
splanchnic g. ha small sympathetic g. often present in the course of the greater splanchnic nerve.g. splanchnicum [NA], Lobstein's g;
g. splanch´nicum [NA] splanchnic g
stellate g. cervicothoracic g
g. stella´tum [NA] * official alternate term for cervicothoracic g
sublingual g. a tiny g. occasionally found anterior to the submandibular g., of which it is a displaced portion; innervates the sublingual gland.g. sublinguale;
g. sublingua´le sublingual g
submandibular g. a small parasympathetic g. suspended from the lingual nerve; its postganglionic branches go to the submandibular and sublingual glands; its preganglionic fibers come from the superior salvatory nucleus by way of the chorda tympani.g. submandibulare [NA], submaxillary g;
g. submandibula´re [NA] submandibular g
submaxillary g. submandibular g
superior cervical g. the uppermost and largest of the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk, lying near the base of the skull between the internal carotid artery and the internal jugular vein.g. cervicale superius [NA] ;
superior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve the upper and smaller of two ganglia on the glossopharyngeal nerve as it traverses the jugular foramen.g. superius nervi glossopharyngei [NA], Ehrenritter's g., intracranial g., jugular g. (1) ;
superior mesenteric g. a paired sympathetic g. located at the origin of the superior mesenteric artery from the aorta.g. mesentericum superius [NA] ;
superior g. of vagus nerve a small sensory g. on the vagus as it traverses the jugular foramen.g. superius nervi vagi [NA], jugular g. (2) ;
g. supe´rius ner´vi glossopharyn´gei [NA] superior g. of glossopharyngeal nerve
g. supe´rius ner´vi va´gi [NA] superior g. of vagus nerve
sympathetic ganglia those ganglia of the autonomic nervous system that receive efferent fibers originating from preganglionic visceral motor neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of thoracic and upper lumbar spinal segments (T1-L2). On the basis of their location, the sympathetic ganglia can be classified as paravertebral ganglia (ganglia trunci sympathici) and prevertebral ganglia (ganglia celiaca). See also autonomic nervous system.
ganglia of sympathetic trunk the clusters of postganglionic neurons located at intervals along the sympathetic trunks, including the superior cervical, middle cervical, and cervicothoracic (stellate) g., the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral ganglia, and the g. impar.ganglia trunci sympathici [NA], paravertebral ganglia;
terminal g. 1. one of the cells located along the terminal nerves; 2. one of the scattered postganglionic autonomic neurons located in or close to the wall of the organ innervated; they are usually parasympathetic.g. terminale [NA] ;
g. termina´le [NA] terminal g
thoracic ganglia ganglia, 11 or 12 on either side, at the level of the head of each rib, constituting with the interganglionic rami the thoracic portion of the sympathetic trunk.ganglia thoracica [NA] ;
gang´lia thorac´ica [NA] thoracic ganglia
trigeminal g. the large flattened sensory g. of the trigeminal nerve lying close to the cavernous sinus along the medial part of the middle cranial fossa in the trigeminal cavity of the dura mater.g. trigeminale [NA], gasserian g., semilunar g. (1) ;
g. trigemina´le [NA] trigeminal g
Troisier's g. historic term for a lymph node immediately above the clavicle, especially on the left side, that is palpably enlarged as the result of a metastasis from a malignant neoplasm; the presence of such a node indicates that the probable site of primary involvement is in an abdominal organ. See also signal node.Troisier's node;
gang´lia trun´ci sympath´ici [NA] ganglia of sympathetic trunk
g. of trunk of vagus inferior g. of vagus nerve
tympanic g. a small g. on the tympanic nerve during its passage through the petrous portion of the temporal bone.g. tympanicum [NA] ;
g. tympan´icum [NA] tympanic g
Valentin's g. a g. on the superior alveolar nerve.
vertebral g. a small g. located along the sympathetic trunk or one of the nerve cords connecting the middle cervical g. and the cervicothoracic g.; it usually lies near the vertebral artery.g. vertebrale [NA] ;
g. vertebra´le [NA] vertebral g
vestibular g. a collection of bipolar nerve cell bodies forming a swelling on the vestibular part of the eighth nerve in the internal acoustic meatus; consists of a superior part and an inferior part connected by a narrow isthmus.g. vestibulare [NA], Scarpa's g;
g. vestibula´re [NA] vestibular g
Vieussens' ganglia celiac ganglia
Walther's g. g. impar
Wrisberg's ganglia cardiac ganglia
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