gland

gland

An organized aggregation of cells functioning as a secretory or excretory organ.glandula (1) ; [L. glans, acorn]
accessory g. a small mass of glandular structure, detached from but lying near another and larger g., to which it is similar in structure and probably in function.
accessory lacrimal g.'s small, compound, branched, tubular glands located in the middle part of the lid (Wolfring's glands, 1872, or Ciaccio's glands, 1874) and along the superior and inferior fornices of the conjunctival sac (Krause's g.'s, 1854). These accessory g.'s are just scattered scraps of lacrimal g. tissue; all of them produce the same kind of tears and debouch on to the conjunctival surface. Henle's and Baumgarten's "glands" are in fact not g.'s at all, but mere epithelial invaginations.glandulae lacrimales accessoriae [NA] ;
accessory parotid g. an occasional islet of parotid tissue separate from the mass of the gland, lying anteriorly just above the commencement of the parotid duct.glandula parotidea accessoria [NA], admaxillary g., glandula parotis accessoria, socia parotidis;
accessory suprarenal g.'s isolated, often minute, masses of suprarenal tissue sometimes found near the main glands or in the broad ligament or the epididymis.glandulae suprarenales accessoriae [NA] ;
accessory thyroid g. an isolated mass, or one of several such masses, of thyroid tissue, sometimes present in the side of the neck, or just above the hyoid bone (suprahyoid accessory thyroid gland), or even as low as the arch of the aorta.glandula thyroidea accessoria [NA], accessory thyroid, prehyoid g., suprahyoid g., thyroidea accessoria, thyroidea ima, Wölfler's g;
acid g. one of the gastric g.'s secreting the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice.oxyntic g;
acinotubular g. tubuloacinar g
acinous g. a g. in which the secretory unit(s) has a grapelike shape and a very small lumen; e.g., the exocrine part of the pancreas.
admaxillary g. accessory parotid g
adrenal g. suprarenal g
aggregate g.'s Peyer's patches, under patch
agminate g.'s , agminated g.'s Peyer's patches, under patch
Albarran's g.'s minute submucosal glands or branching tubules in the subcervical region of the prostate g., emptying for the most part into the posterior portion of the urethra.Albarran y Dominguez' tubules;
albuminous g. a g. that secretes a watery fluid.
alveolar g. a g. in which the secretory unit(s) has a saclike form and an obvious lumen; e.g., the active mammary gland.
anal g. 1. one of a number of large sudoriferous g.'s in the mucous membrane of the anus; 2. an incorrect synonym for anal sac.
anterior lingual g. one of the small mixed glands deeply placed near the apex of the tongue on each side of the frenulum.glandula lingualis anterior [NA], apical g., Bauhin's g., Blandin's g., Nuhn's g;
apical g. anterior lingual g
apocrine g. a g. whose secretory product includes an apical portion of the secretory cell such as the secretion of lipid droplets in lactation.
apocrine sweat g.'s sudoriferous g.'s that develop in association with hair follicles and undergo enlargement and secretory development at puberty; they secrete a viscous and odorless sweat that supports the growth of bacteria leading to an acrid odor; secretion is by an eccrine, not apocrine, mechanism.axillary sweat g.'s;
areolar g.'s a number of small mammary glands forming small rounded projections from the surface of the areola of the breast; they enlarge with pregnancy and during lactation secrete a substance presumed to resist chapping.glandulae areolares [NA], Montgomery's follicles, Montgomery's g.'s;
arteriococcygeal g. coccygeal body
arytenoid g.'s a large number of mixed glands in the mucous membrane of the larynx; they are called, according to their situation, anterior, middle, and posterior.glandulae laryngeae [NA], laryngeal g.'s;
Aselli's g. a single large lymph node ventral to the abdominal aorta that receives all the lymph from the intestines in many smaller mammals.Aselli's pancreas;
g.'s of auditory tube mucous g.'s of auditory tube
axillary g.'s axillary lymph nodes, under lymph node
axillary sweat g.'s apocrine sweat g.'s
Bartholin's g. greater vestibular g
basal g. hypophysis
Bauhin's g. anterior lingual g
Baumgarten's g.'s Henle's g.'s
g.'s of biliary mucosa small, mucous, tubuloalveolar glands in the mucosa of the larger bile ducts and especially in the neck of the gallbladder.glandulae mucosae biliosae [NA], Luschka's cystic g.'s, Theile's g.'s;
Blandin's g. anterior lingual g
Boerhaave's g.'s sweat g.'s
Bowman's g. See olfactory g.'s.
brachial g. one of the lymph nodes of the arm.
bronchial g.'s 1. bronchopulmonary lymph nodes, under lymph node 2. mucous and seromucous glands whose secretory units lie outside the muscle of the bronchi.
Bruch's g.'s lymph nodes in the palpebral conjunctiva.trachoma g.'s;
Brunner's g.'s duodenal g.'s
buccal g.'s numerous racemose, mucous, or serous glands in the submucous tissue of the cheeks.glandulae buccales [NA], genal g.'s;
bulbourethral g. one of two small compound racemose glands, that produce a mucoid secretion, lying side by side along the membranous urethra just above the bulb of the corpus spongiosum; they discharge through a small duct into the spongy portion of the urethra.glandula bulbourethralis [NA], Cowper's g., Méry's g;
cardiac g. a coiled tubular g. located in the cardiac region of the stomach; secretes primarily mucus.
cardiac g.'s of esophagus g.'s located in the lamina propria of the uppermost and lowermost levels of the esophagus; they resemble cardiac g.'s of the stomach in that they are branched tubules of mucous cells.
celiac g.'s celiac lymph nodes, under lymph node
ceruminous g.'s apocrine sudoriferous glands in the external acoustic meatus.glandulae ceruminosae (1) [NA] ;
cervical g.'s 1. See anterior cervical lymph nodes, under lymph node, lateral deep cervical lymph nodes, under lymph node, lateral superficial cervical lymph nodes, under lymph node. 2. branched mucus-secreting glands in the mucosa of the cervix.glandulae cervicales uteri [NA], cervical g.'s of uterus;
cervical g.'s of uterus cervical g.'s (2)
Ciaccio's g.'s See accessory lacrimal g.'s.
ciliary g.'s a number of modified apocrine sudoriferous glands in the eyelids, with ducts that usually open into the follicles of the eyelashes.glandulae ciliares [NA], Moll's g.'s;
circumanal g.'s large apocrine sweat glands surrounding the anus.glandulae circumanales [NA], Gay's g.'s;
coccygeal g. coccygeal body
coil g. a g. whose secretory part is convoluted.convoluted g;
compound g. a g. whose larger excretory ducts branch repeatedly into smaller ducts, which ultimately drain secretory units.
conjunctival g.'s clusters of mucous cells in the conjunctival epithelium, most numerous on the bulbar conjunctiva.glandulae conjunctivales [NA], Terson's g.'s;
convoluted g. coil g
Cowper's g. bulbourethral g
crop g. cells in the crop of male and female pigeons and doves that secrete a caseous or milklike material with which the bird feeds its young; it is stimulated to secrete by prolactin, the lactogenic hormone of the anterior hypophysis, and is used as a test object for assaying the activity of this hormone.
cutaneous g.'s any of the glands of the skin.glandulae cutis [NA] ;
ductless g.'s endocrine g.'s
duodenal g.'s small, branched, coiled tubular glands that occur mostly in the submucosa of the first third of the duodenum; they secrete an alkaline mucoid substance that serves to neutralize gastric juice.glandulae duodenales [NA], Brunner's g.'s, Wepfer's g.'s;
Duverney's g. greater vestibular g
Ebner's g.'s serous g.'s of the tongue opening in the bottom of the trough surrounding the circumvallate papillae.
eccrine g. a coiled tubular sweat g. (other than apocrine g.'s) that occurs in the skin on almost all parts of the body.
ecdysial g.'s insect structures that originate from the ectoderm of the ventrocaudal part of the head and serve as a source of ecdysone.peritracheal g.'s, prothoracic g.'s, thoracic g.'s, ventral g.'s;
Eglis' g.'s small, inconstant mucous g.'s of the ureter and renal pelvis.
endocrine g.'s glands that have no ducts, their secretions being absorbed directly into the blood.glandulae endocrinae [NA], glandulae sine ductibus [NA], ductless g.'s, g.'s of internal secretion;
esophageal g.'s a variable number of small compound mucous glands in the submucosa of the esophagus.glandulae esophageae [NA] ;
g.'s of eustachian tube mucous g.'s of auditory tube
excretory g. a g. separating excrementitious or waste material from the blood.
exocrine g. a g. from which secretions reach a free surface of the body by ducts.
external salivary g. parotid g
g.'s of the female urethra numerous mucous g.'s in the wall of the female urethra.glandulae urethrales femininae, Guérin's g.'s, paraurethral g.'s, Skene's g.'s;
follicular g. a g. consisting of follicles.
fundus g.'s gastric g.'s
Galeati's g.'s intestinal g.'s
gastric g.'s branched tubular glands lying in the mucosa of the fundus and body of the stomach; such glands contain parietal cells that secrete hydrochloric acid, zymogen cells that produce pepsin, and mucous cells.glandulae gastricae [NA], glandulae propriae [NA], fundus g.'s, gastric follicles, Wasmann's g.'s;
Gay's g.'s circumanal g.'s
genal g.'s buccal g.'s
genital g. 1. testis 2. ovary
Gley's g.'s See parathyroid g.
glomiform g.'s glomus (2)
greater vestibular g. one of two mucoid-secreting tubuloalveolar glands on either side of the lower part of the vagina, the equivalent of the bulbourethral glands in the male; ensheathed with vestibular bulbs by ischiocavernosus muscles. Thus erection and muscle contraction cause secretion into vestibule of vagina.glandula vestibularis major [NA], Bartholin's g., Duverney's g., Tiedemann's g., vulvovaginal g;
Guérin's g.'s g.'s of the female urethra
Harder's g. , harderian g. 1. the deep g. of the semilunar conjunctival fold or "third eyelid" found in animals such as the pig and deer; 2. misnomer for the superficial g. of the semilunar conjunctival fold in the dog; not present in humans.
Havers' g.'s collections of adipose tissue in the hip, knee, and other joints, covered by synovial membrane, thought by Havers to be g.'s secreting the synovia.synovial g.'s;
hemal g. hemal node
hematopoietic g. a blood-forming organ, such as the spleen.
hemolymph g. hemal node
Henle's g.'s accessory lacrimal g.'s located near the fornices in the medial part of the palpebral conjunctiva; they open on the conjunctiva surface.Baumgarten's g.'s;
hibernating g. brown fat
holocrine g. a g. whose secretion consists of disintegrated cells of the g. itself, e.g., a sebaceous g., in contrast to a merocrine g.
inguinal g.'s See deep inguinal lymph nodes, under lymph node, superficial inguinal lymph nodes, under lymph node.
internal salivary g. the sublingual and submandibular g.'s regarded as one.
g.'s of internal secretion endocrine g.'s
interrenal g.'s interrenal bodies, under body
interscapular g. brown fat
interstitial g. See interstitial cells, under cell.
intestinal g.'s the tubular glands in the mucous membrane of the small and large intestines.glandulae intestinales [NA], Galeati's g.'s, intestinal follicles, Lieberkühn's crypts, Lieberkühn's follicles, Lieberkühn's g.'s;
intraepithelial g.'s accumulations of glandular cells that lie within an epithelium, as those of the urethra.
jugular g. signal node
Knoll's g.'s g.'s in the ventricular folds of the larynx (false vocal cords).
Krause's g.'s 1. See accessory lacrimal g.'s. 2. g.'s in the mucous membrane of the tympanic cavity. See accessory lacrimal g.'s.
labial g.'s mucous glands in the submucous tissue of the lips.glandulae labiales [NA] ;
lacrimal g. the gland that secretes tears; it consists of 6 to 12 separate compound tubuloalveolar serous glands, located in the upper lateral part of the orbit, and is partially divided into a smaller palpebral part and a larger orbital part by the aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae muscle.glandula lacrimalis [NA] ;
lactiferous g. mammary g
laryngeal g.'s arytenoid g.'s
lesser vestibular g.'s a number of minute mucous glands opening on the surface of the vestibule between the orifices of the vagina and urethra.glandulae vestibulares minores [NA] ;
Lieberkühn's g.'s intestinal g.'s
Littré's g.'s g.'s of the male urethra
Luschka's g. 1. pharyngeal tonsil 2. former name for corpus coccygeum.
Luschka's cystic g.'s g.'s of biliary mucosa
lymph g. lymph node
major salivary g.'s a category of salivary g.'s that includes the three largest g.'s of the oral cavity that also secrete most of the saliva: the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual g.'s.
g.'s of the male urethra numerous mucous glands in the wall of the penile urethra.glandulae urethrales masculinae, Littré's g.'s;
malpighian g.'s splenic lymph follicles, under follicle
mammary g. the compound alveolar apocrine secretory gland that forms the breast. It consists of 15 to 24 lobes, each consisting of many lobules, separated by adipose tissue and fibrous septa; the parenchyma of the resting gland consists of ducts; the alveoli develop only during pregnancy.glandula mammaria [NA], lactiferous g., milk g;
marrow-lymph g. a type of hemal node, resembling the bone marrow in structure and probable function.
master g. hypophysis
maxillary g. submandibular g
meibomian g.'s tarsal g.'s
merocrine g. a g. that releases only an acellular secretory product, in contrast to a holocrine g.
Méry's g. bulbourethral g
mesenteric g.'s See mesenteric lymph nodes, under lymph node.
metrial g. collections of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain animals (e.g., mouse, rat). The cells are thought to disintegrate and pass (as a holocrine secretion) into the afferent placental vessels to furnish nutriment for the embryo.
milk g. mammary g
minor salivary g.'s the smaller, largely mucous-secreting, exocrine g.'s of the oral cavity, consisting of the labial, buccal, molar, lingual, and palatine g.'s.
mixed g. 1. a g. that contains both serous and mucous secretory units; 2. a g. that is both exocrine and endocrine, e.g., the pancreas.
molar g.'s four or five large buccal glands in the neighborhood of the last molar tooth.glandulae molares [NA] ;
Moll's g.'s ciliary g.'s
Montgomery's g.'s areolar g.'s
g.'s of mouth glands that empty into the oral cavity.glandulae oris [NA] ;
mucilaginous g. one of the synovial villi, supposed by Havers to secrete the synovia.
muciparous g. mucous g
mucous g. a gland that secretes mucus.glandula mucosa [NA], muciparous g;
mucous g.'s of auditory tube glands located principally near the pharyngeal end of the auditory tube.glandulae tubariae [NA], g.'s of auditory tube, g.'s of eustachian tube;
nasal g.'s seromucous glands in the respiratory region of the nasal mucous membrane.glandulae nasales [NA] ;
Nuhn's g. anterior lingual g
odoriferous g. 1. a g., such as Tyson's g., the secretion of which has a strong odor; 2. See sweat g.'s.
oil g.'s 1. sebaceous g.'s 2. uropygial g
olfactory g.'s branched tubuloalveolar serous secreting glands (of Bowman) in the mucous membrane of the olfactory region of the nasal cavity.glandulae olfactoriae [NA] ;
oxyntic g. acid g
pacchionian g.'s arachnoid granulations, under granulation
palatine g.'s a number of racemose mucous glands in the posterior half of the submucous tissue covering the hard palate.glandulae palatinae [NA] ;
palpebral g.'s tarsal g.'s
parathyroid g. one of Gley's glands or Sandström's bodies; one of two small paired endocrine glands, superior and inferior, usually found embedded in the connective tissue capsule on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland; they secrete parathyroid hormone that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. The parenchyma is composed of chief and oxyphilic cells arranged in anastomosing cords. Inadvertant removal of all parethyroid g.'s, as during thyroidectomy, produces tetany and death.glandula parathyroidea [NA], epithelial body, parathyroid (2) ;
paraurethral g.'s g.'s of the female urethra
parotid g. the largest of the salivary glands, one of two compound acinous glands situated inferior and anterior to the ear, on either side, extending from the angle of the jaw to the zygomatic arch and posteriorly to the sternocleidomastoid muscle; it is subdivided into a superficial part and a deep part by emerging branches of the facial nerve, and discharges through the parotid duct.glandula parotidea [NA], external salivary g., glandula parotis;
pectoral g.'s See axillary lymph nodes, under lymph node.
peptic g. a pepsin-secreting g. See gastric g.'s.
perianal odoriferous g.'s See scent g.'s.
peritracheal g.'s ecdysial g.'s
perspiratory g.'s sweat g.'s
Peyer's g.'s Peyer's patches, under patch
pharyngeal g.'s racemose mucous glands beneath the mucous membrane of the pharynx.glandulae pharyngeae [NA] ;
Philip's g.'s enlarged deep g.'s just above the clavicle, found in children with pulmonary tuberculosis and occasionally in others.
pileous g. a sebaceous g. emptying into the hair follicle.
pineal g. pineal body
pituitary g. hypophysis
Poirier's g. a lymph node on the uterine artery where it crosses the ureter.
preen g. uropygial g
prehyoid g. accessory thyroid g
preputial g.'s sebaceous glands of the corona glandis and inner surface of the prepuce, which produce an odiferous substance called smegma.glandulae preputiales [NA], Tyson's g.'s;
prostate g. prostate
prothoracic g.'s ecdysial g.'s
pyloric g.'s the coiled, tubular glands of the pylorus whose cells secrete mucus.glandulae pyloricae [NA] ;
racemose g. a g. that has the appearance of a bunch of grapes if viewed as a three-dimensional reconstruction; e.g., a compound acinous or alveolar g.
Rivinus' g. sublingual g
Rosenmüller's g. node of Cloquet
saccular g. a single alveolar g.
salivary g. any of the saliva-secreting exocrine glands of the oral cavity.glandula salivaria [NA] ;
scent g.'s cutaneous g.'s producing odoriferous secretions (pheromones or recognition odors); they may be located on different parts of the body, e.g., under the chin (rabbit); between the digits (goat); on the medial surface of the metatarsus (deer), in the preorbital fold (antelope); in the occipital region (camel); on the flank (hamster); in the perianal region and on the dorsum of the tail base (carnivores).
sebaceous g.'s numerous holocrine glands in the dermis that usually open into the hair follicles and secrete an oily semifluid sebum.glandulae sebaceae [NA], oil g.'s (1), sebaceous follicles;
seminal g. seminal vesicle
sentinel g. a single enlarged lymph node in the omentum that may be an indication of an ulcer opposite to it in the greater or lesser curvature of the stomach.
seromucous g. 1. a gland in which some of the secretory cells are serous and some mucous; 2. a gland whose cells secrete a fluid intermediate between a watery and a viscous mucoid substance.glandula seromucosa [NA] ;
serous g. a gland that secretes a watery substance that may or may not contain an enzyme.glandula serosa [NA] ;
Serres' g.'s epithelial cell rests found in the subepithelial connective tissue in the palate of the newborn, similar to those found in the gingivae.
sexual g. See testis, ovary.
Skene's g.'s g.'s of the female urethra
solitary g.'s solitary lymphatic follicles, under follicle
sublingual g. one of two salivary glands in the floor of the mouth beneath the tongue, discharging through the sublingual ducts; most of the secretory units in the human gland are mucus-secreting with serous demilunes.glandula sublingualis [NA], Rivinus' g;
submandibular g. one of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bounded by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible; it discharges through the submandibular duct; the secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur.glandula submandibularis [NA], maxillary g., submaxillary g;
submaxillary g. submandibular g
sudoriferous g.'s sweat g.'s
suprahyoid g. accessory thyroid g
suprarenal g. a flattened, roughly triangular body resting upon the upper end of each kidney; it is one of the ductless glands furnishing internal secretions (epinephrine and norepinephrine from the medulla and steroid hormones from the cortex).glandula suprarenalis [NA], adrenal body, adrenal capsule, adrenal g., atrabiliary capsule, epinephros, glandula atrabiliaris, paranephros, suprarenal body, suprarenal capsule;
Suzanne's g. a small mucous g. in the floor of the mouth.
sweat g.'s the coil glands of the skin that secrete the sweat.glandulae sudoriferae [NA], Boerhaave's g.'s, perspiratory g.'s, sudoriferous g.'s;
synovial g.'s Havers' g.'s
target g. the effector that functions when stimulated by the internal secretion of another gland or by some other stimulus.
tarsal g.'s sebaceous glands embedded in the tarsal plate of each eyelid, discharging at the edge of the lid near the posterior border. Their secretions create a lipid barrier along the margin of the eyelids which contains the normal secretions in the conjunctival sac by preventing the watery fluid from spilling over the barrier when the eye is open.glandulae tarsales [NA], meibomian g.'s, palpebral g.'s;
Terson's g.'s conjunctival g.'s
Theile's g.'s g.'s of biliary mucosa
thoracic g.'s ecdysial g.'s
thymus g. thymus
thyroid g. a ductless gland, consisting of irregularly spheroidal follicles, lying in front and to the sides of the upper part of the trachea, and of horseshoe shape, with two lateral lobes connected by a narrow central portion, the isthmus; occasionally an elongated offshoot, the pyramidal lobe, passes upward from the isthmus in front of the trachea. It is supplied by branches from the external carotid and subclavian arteries, and its nerves are derived from the middle cervical and cervicothoracic ganglia of the sympathetic system. It secretes thyroid hormone and calcitonin.glandula thyroidea [NA], thyroid body, thyroidea;
Tiedemann's g. greater vestibular g
tracheal g.'s numerous tubuloalveolar mixed glands located principally in the submucosa of the trachea; they open into the tracheal lumen through short ducts.glandulae tracheales [NA] ;
trachoma g.'s Bruch's g.'s
tubular g. a g. composed of one or more tubules ending in a blind extremity.
tubuloacinar g. a g. whose secretory elements are elongated acini.acinotubular g;
tubuloalveolar g. a g. that has secretory units of short tubules.
tympanic g. one of the mucous g.'s in the mucosa of the tympanic cavity.tympanic body;
Tyson's g.'s preputial g.'s
unicellular g. a single secretory cell such as a mucous goblet cell.
urethral g.'s See g.'s of the female urethra, g.'s of the male urethra.
uropygial g. a compound alveolar g. of birds located on the dorsum of the tail or pygostyle; the secretion of this g. (fatty acids and wax) exits from a papilla on the dorsal surface at the base of the tail feathers; the bird applies the substance to its feathers by means of the bill when preening. The uropygial g. is lacking in some species but its waterproofing ability is essential to water birds.glandula uropygius, oil g.'s (2), preen g;
uterine g.'s numerous simple tubular glands in the uterine mucosa that secrete a glycogen-rich mucous fluid during the luted phase of the menstrual cycle.glandulae uterinae [NA] ;
vaginal g. one of the mucous g.'s in the mucous membrane of the vagina.
vascular g. hemal node
ventral g.'s ecdysial g.'s
vesical g. one of a number of mucous follicles, not true g.'s, in the mucous membrane near the neck of the bladder.
vestibular g.'s See greater vestibular g., lesser vestibular g.'s.
vulvovaginal g. greater vestibular g
Waldeyer's g.'s coil g.'s near the margins of the eyelids.
Wasmann's g.'s gastric g.'s
Weber's g.'s muciparous g.'s at the border of the tongue on either side posteriorly.
Wepfer's g.'s duodenal g.'s
Wölfler's g. accessory thyroid g
Wolfring's g.'s See accessory lacrimal g.'s.
Zeis' g.'s sebaceous g.'s opening into the follicles of the eyelashes.

 

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