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granuloma (gran-yu-lo´ma)

Indefinite term applied to nodular inflammatory lesions, usually small or granular, firm, persistent, and containing compactly grouped mononuclear phagocytes. See also granulomatosis. [granulo- + G. -oma, tumor]
actinic g. an annular eruption on sun-exposed skin which microscopically shows phagocytosis of dermal elastic fibers by giant cells and histiocytes.Miescher's g;
amebic g. ameboma
g. annula´re a chronic or recurrent, usually self-limited papular eruption that tends to develop on the distal portions of the extremities and over prominences, although the condition may be generalized; waxy papules tend to form annular lesions characterized microscopically by foci of dermal necrosis with mucin deposits, bordered by histiocytes with palisaded nuclei.lichen annularis;
apical g. periapical g
beryllium g. a sarcoid-like granulomatous reaction to exposure to inhaled beryllium, or skin cuts by fluorescent lamps.
bilharzial g. schistosome g
canine venereal g. a rapidly growing, soft, easily bleeding, infectious, connective tissue tumor occurring in the vagina of the female dog and on the penis and sheath of the male; ordinarily transmitted by coitus.transmissible venereal tumor;
coccidioidal g. secondary coccidioidomycosis
coli g. Hjärre's disease
dental g. periapical g
g. endem´icum the lesion occurring in cutaneous leishmaniasis.
eosinophilic g. a lesion observed more frequently in children and adolescents, occasionally in young adults, which occurs chiefly as a solitary focus in one bone, although multiple involvement is sometimes observed and similar foci may develop in the lung; characterized by numerous Langerhans cells and eosinophils, and occasional foci of necrosis; may be related to Hand-Schüller-Christian disease, possibly representing a benign clinical form.
g. facia´le persistent well-demarcated nodules that usually appear on the face and consist of a dense dermal infiltrate of eosinophils and neutrophils, separated from the epidermis and hair follicles, with fibrinoid vasculitis.
foreign body g. a g. caused by the presence of foreign particulate material in tissue, characterized by a histiocytic reaction with foreign body giant cells.
g. gangrenes´cens lethal midline g
giant cell g. a non-neoplastic lesion characterized by a proliferation of granulation tissue containing numerous multinucleated giant cells; it occurs on the gingiva and alveolar mucosa (occasionally on other soft tissues) where it presents as a soft red-blue hemorrhagic nodular swelling; it also occurs within the mandible or maxilla as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency; microscopically similar lesions occur in the tubular bones of the hands and feet, are considered neoplastic, and may have a malignant course. Identical bony lesions may be seen in hyperparathyroidism and cherubism. See also giant cell tumor of bone.giant cell epulis;
g. gravida´rum a pyogenic g. developing on the gingiva during pregnancy; thought to be related to hormonally altered response of the oral mucous membranes to local irritants such as bacterial plaque on adjacent teeth.pregnancy tumor;
infectious g. any granulomatous lesion known to be caused by a living agent; e.g., bacteria, fungi, helminths.
g. inguina´le a specific g., classified as a venereal disease and caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis observed in macrophages as Donovan bodies; the ulcerating granulomatous lesions occur in the inguinal regions and the genitalia; peripheral extension of the lesions produces extensive destruction.donovanosis, g. pudendi, g. venereum, pudendal ulcer, ulcerating g. of pudenda;
g. inguina´le trop´icum an elongated ulcer, with elevated papillary edges, sometimes occurring in the groin in persons in the tropics.groin ulcer;
laryngeal g. a polypoid granulomatous projection of granulomatous tissue into the lumen of the larynx, commonly following a traumatic tracheal intubation.
lethal midline g. 1. destruction of the nasal septum, hard palate, lateral nasal walls, paranasal sinuses, skin of the face, orbit and nasopharynx by an inflammatory infiltrate with atypical lymphocytic and histiocytic cells; presumably a form of lymphoma in most cases. 2. obsolete term for polymorphic reticulosis.g. gangrenescens, malignant g., midline malignant reticulosis granuloma;
lipoid g. g. characterized by aggregates or accumulations of fairly large mononuclear phagocytes that contain lipid.
lipophagic g. a lesion formed as a result of the inflammatory reaction provoked by foci of necrosis in subcutaneous fat, as in certain types of traumatic injury; the central focus of necrotic material is surrounded by an irregular zone of numerous macrophages, many of which become laden with tiny globules of lipid.
Majocchi g.'s erythematous papules due to a deep follicular fungal infection with rupture of the hair follicles; most frequently seen on shaved legs of women.tinea profunda;
malignant g. lethal midline g
Miescher's g. actinic g
g. multifor´me a chronic granulomatous annular eruption of the skin on the upper body in older adults in central Africa; of unknown cause.
oily g. reaction to inclusion of a bulky, insoluble liquid (often an oily substance) which occurs several months, but sometimes years, after injection of the material.
paracoccidioidal g. paracoccidioidomycosis
parasitic g. cutaneous leishmaniasis manifested as warty papules affecting primarily the lower limbs.
periapical g. a proliferation of granulation tissue surrounding the apex of a nonvital tooth and arising in response to pulpal necrosis.apical g., dental g., root end g;
g. puden´di g. inguinale
pulse g. giant cell hyaline angiopathy
pyogenic g. , g. pyogen´icum an acquired small rounded mass of highly vascular granulation tissue, frequently with an ulcerated surface, projecting from the skin or mucosa; histologically, the mass resembles a capillary hemangioma.g. telangiectaticum;
reparative giant cell g. See giant cell g.
reticulohistiocytic g. obsolete term for reticulohistiocytoma.
root end g. periapical g
sarcoidal g. a non-necrotizing epithelioid cell g. similar to those seen in sarcoidosis.
schistosome g. a granulomatous lesion formed around schistosome eggs embedded in tissues in cases of schistosomiasis (bilharziasis); typically these granulomata are found in intestinal tissues (Schistosoma japonicum or S. mansoni infection), bladder tissue (S. haematobium), and hepatic tissue (all human schistosomes).bilharzial g;
sea urchin g. granulomatous nodules, either foreign-body type or composed of epitheliod cells, from the retention of the spine of the sea urchin, occurring several months after the wounding of the skin.
silica g. eruption of granulomatous lesions due to traumatic inoculation of the skin with sand, or materials that contain silica; this condition may follow dermabrasion using sandpaper technique.
silicotic g. granulomatous nodule resulting from deposition of silica particles, usually occurring in lung.
swimming pool g. a chronic, verrucous lesion most commonly seen on the knees; due to infection by Mycobacterium marinum.
g. telangiecta´ticum pyogenic g
g. trop´icum yaws
ulcerating g. of pudenda g. inguinale
g. vene´reum g. inguinale
zirconium g. g. from zirconium salts, usually occurring in the axillae, from antiperspirants containing this material; may also be caused by intradermal injection of antigens containing the lactate salt.


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