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hypertension (hI´per-ten´shun)

High blood pressure. Despite many discrete and inherited but rare forms that have been identified, the evidence is that for the most part blood pressure is a multifactorial, perhaps galtonian trait. Its strong cybernetic properties may also be largely inherited but would not be reflected in measurements of heritability. The definition of what is "high" or "low" blood pressure is then entirely arbitrary, but extreme cases are undoubtedly dysgenic.hyperpiesis, hyperpiesia; [hyper- + L. tensio, tension]
accelerated h. h. advancing rapidly with increasing blood pressure and associated with acute and rapidly worsening signs and symptoms.
adrenal h. h. due to an adrenal medullary pheochromocytoma or to hyperactivity or functioning tumor of the adrenal cortex.
benign h. h. that runs a relatively long and symptomless course.
borderline h. by consensus, that blood pressure zone between highest acceptable "normal" blood pressure and hypertensive blood pressure. The Framingham Heart Study defines this as pressures between 140 and 160 mm Hg systolic and 90 and 95 mm Hg diastolic.
essential h. h. without known cause.idiopathic h., primary h;
Goldblatt h. increased blood pressure following obstruction of blood flow to one kidney.Goldblatt phenomenon;
idiopathic h. essential h
labile h. frequently changing levels of elevated blood pressure.
malignant h. severe h. that runs a rapid course, causing necrosis of arteriolar walls in kidney, retina, etc.; hemorrhages occur, and death most frequently is caused by uremia or rupture of a cerebral vessel.
pale h. h. with pallor of the skin, a severe form with pronounced constriction of peripheral vessels.
portal h. h. in the portal system as seen in cirrhosis of the liver and other conditions causing obstruction to the portal vein.
postpartum h. increased blood pressure immediately following the completion of labor.
primary h. essential h
pulmonary h. h. in the pulmonary circuit; may be primary, or secondary to pulmonary or cardiac disease, e.g., fibrosis of the lung or mitral stenosis.
renal h. h. secondary to renal disease.
renovascular h. h. produced by renal arterial obstruction.
secondary h. arterial h. produced by a known cause, e.g., hyperthyroidism, kidney disease, etc., in contrast to primary h. that is of unknown cause.
systemic venous h. increased pressure in the veins ultimately leading to the right atrium nearly always due to disease of the right heart but occasionally due to blockade of one or both venae cavae.


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