immunity

immunity (i-myu´ni-te)

The status or quality of being immune (1).insusceptibility; [L. immunitas (see immune)]
acquired i. resistance resulting from previous exposure of the individual in question to an infectious agent or antigen; it may be active and specific, as a result of naturally acquired (apparent or inapparent) infection or intentional vaccination (artificial active i.); or it may be passive, being acquired from transfer of antibodies from another person or from an animal, either naturally, as from mother to fetus, or by intentional inoculation (artificial passive i.), and, with respect to the particular antibodies transferred, it is specific. Passive, cell-mediated i. produced by the transfer of living lymphoid cells from an immune (allergic or sensitive) animal to a normal one is sometimes referred to as adoptive i.
active i. See acquired i.
adoptive i. See acquired i.
antiviral i. i. resulting from virus infection, either naturally acquired or produced by intentional vaccination; compared to some bacterial i.'s, it is of relatively long duration, but this may be the result of infection-immunity rather than being peculiar to virus infection per se, since it occurs also in bacterial i. after infections such as typhoid fever.
artificial active i. See acquired i.
artificial passive i. See acquired i.
bacteriophage i. the state induced in a bacterium by lysogenization, the lysogenic bacterium being insusceptible to further lysogenization or to a lytic cycle by a superinfecting bacteriophage, in contradistinction to bacteriophage resistance.
cell-mediated i. (CMI) , cellular i. immune responses which are initiated by T lymphocytes and mediated by T lymphocytes, macrophages, or both (e.g., graft rejection, delayed-type hypersensitivity).delayed hypersensitivity (1) ;
concomitant i. infection i
general i. i. associated with widely diffused mechanisms that tend to protect the body as a whole, as compared with local i.
group i. herd i
herd i. the resistance to invasion and spread of an infectious agent in a group or community, based on the resistance to infection of a high proportion of individual members of the group; resistance is a product of the number susceptible and the probability that susceptibles will come into contact with an infected person.group i;
humoral i. i. associated with circulating antibodies, in contradistinction to cellular i.
infection i. the paradoxical immune status in which resistance to reinfection coincides with the persistence of the original infection.concomitant i;
innate i. resistance manifested by a species (or by races, families, and individuals in a species) that has not been immunized (sensitized, allergized) by previous infection or vaccination; much of it results from body mechanisms that are poorly understood, but are different from those responsible for the altered reactivity associated with the specific nature of acquired i.; in general, innate i. is nonspecific and is not stimulated by specific antigens. See also self.natural i., nonspecific i;
local i. a natural or acquired i. to certain infectious agents, as manifested by an organ or a tissue, as a whole or in part.
maternal i. i. acquired by a fetus because of the presence of maternal IgG that passes through the placenta.
natural i. , nonspecific i. innate i
passive i. See acquired i.
relative i. a modified, not completely effective resistance that results when there is a sort of "fluctuating equilibrium" between the defense mechanisms of the host and the infective agent.
specific i. the immune status in which there is an altered reactivity directed solely against the antigenic determinants (infectious agent or other) that stimulated it. See acquired i.
specific active i. See acquired i.
specific passive i. See acquired i.
stress i. insusceptibility or resistance to the effects of emotional strain.

 

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