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joint

joint (joynt)

In anatomy, the place of union, usually more or less movable, between two or more bones. J.'s between skeletal elements exhibit a great variety of form and function, and are classified into three general morphological types: fibrous j.'s; cartilaginous j.'s; and synovial j.'s.articulatio [NA], arthrosis (1), articulation (1), articulus, junctura (1) ; [L. junctura; fr. jungo, pp. junctus, to join]
acromioclavicular j. a plane synovial joint between the acromial end of the clavicle and the medial margin of the acromion.articulatio acromioclavicularis [NA] ;
ankle j. a hinge synovial joint between the tibia and fibula above and the talus below.articulatio talocruralis [NA], ankle (1), mortise j., talocrural articulation, talocrural j;
anterior intraoccipital j. anterior intraoccipital synchondrosis
arthrodial j. plane j
atlantoaxial j. compound j. between first and second cervical vertebrae.
atlanto-occipital j. a condylar synovial joint between the superior articular facets of the atlas and the condyles of the occipital bone.articulatio atlanto-occipitalis [NA], atlanto-occipital articulation;
j.'s of auditory ossicles the joints of the ossicular chain consisting of incudomallear j., incudostapedeal j., and the tympanostapedeal syndesmosis.articulationes ossiculorum auditus [NA], j.'s of ear bones;
ball-and-socket j. a multiaxial synovial joint in which a more or less extensive sphere on the head of one bone fits into a rounded cavity in the other bone, as in the hip joint.articulatio spheroidea [NA], articulatio cotylica [NA], cotyloid j., enarthrodial j., enarthrosis, socket j., spheroid articulation, spheroid j;
biaxial j. one in which there are two principal axes of movement situated at right angles to each other; e.g., saddle j.'s.
bicondylar j. a synovial joint in which two more or less distinct, rounded surfaces of one bone articulate with shallow depressions on another bone.articulatio bicondylaris [NA], bicondylar articulation;
bilocular j. one in which the intra-articular disk is complete, dividing the j. into two distinct cavities.
Budin's obstetrical j. posterior intraoccipital synchondrosis
calcaneocuboid j. a somewhat saddle-shaped synovial joint between the anterior surface of the calcaneus and the posterior surface of the cuboid. This is the lateral element of the compound transverse tarsal joint.articulatio calcaneocuboidea [NA] ;
capitular j. j. of head of rib
carpal j.'s 1. intercarpal j.'s 2. wrist j
carpometacarpal j.'s the synovial joints between the carpal and metacarpal bones; these are all plane joints except that of the thumb, which is saddle-shaped.articulationes carpometacarpeae [NA] ;
carpometacarpal j. of thumb the saddle-shaped synovial articulation between the trapezium and the base of the first metacarpal bone.articulatio carpometacarpea pollicis [NA] ;
cartilaginous j. a joint in which the apposed bony surfaces are united by cartilage; they are divided into synchondroses and symphyses; in synchondroses, the cartilage connecting the apposed surfaces is, as a rule, ultimately converted to bone, as between epiphyses and diaphyses of long bones; exceptions are the sternal synchondroses and the cartilaginous union of the first rib and the manubrium of the sternum; in symphyses the bones are connected by a flat disk of fibrocartilage which remains unossified throughout life; e.g., the intervertebral disk and the symphysis pubis.articulatio cartilaginis [NA], cartilaginous articulation, junctura cartilaginea, synarthrodial j. (2) ;
Charcot's j. tabetic arthropathy
Chopart's j. transverse tarsal j
Clutton's j.'s symmetrical arthrosis, especially of the knee joints, in cases of congenital syphilis.
coccygeal j. sacrococcygeal j
cochlear j. a variety of hinge j. in which the elevation and depression, respectively, on the opposing articular surfaces form part of a spiral, flexion being then accompanied by a certain amount of lateral deviation.screw j., spiral j;
coffin j. the distal interphalangeal articulation of the horse, a compound synovial j. between the middle and distal phalanges and also with the distal sesamoid or navicular bone on the caudal side.
composite j. compound j
compound j. a joint composed of three or more skeletal elements, or in which two anatomically separate joints function as a unit. For example, the telonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints act together as the compound transverse tarsal joint.articulatio complexa [NA], articulatio composita [NA], composite j., compound articulation;
condylar j. ellipsoidal j
costochondral j. the cartilaginous joint between the sternal end of a rib and the lateral end of a costal cartilage.articulatio costochondralis [NA], costochondral junction;
costotransverse j. the synovial articulation between the neck and tubercle of a rib and the transverse process of a vertebra.articulatio costotransversaria [NA] ;
costovertebral j.'s the synovial joints uniting ribs and vertebrae; they consist of the j. capitis costae and the j. costotransversaria.articulationes costovertebrales [NA] ;
cotyloid j. ball-and-socket j
cricoarytenoid j. the synovial joint between the base of each arytenoid cartilage and the upper border of the lamina of the cricoid cartilage.articulatio cricoarytenoidea [NA], cricoarytenoid articulation;
cricothyroid j. the synovial articulation between the inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage and the side of the cricoid cartilage.articulatio cricothyroidea [NA], cricothyroid articulation;
Cruveilhier's j. median atlantoaxial j
cubital j. elbow j
cuboideonavicular j. a fibrous j. between adjacent parts of the cuboid and navicular bones; occasionally a synovial cavity is found here as an extension of the cuneonavicular j.
cuneocuboid j. the synovial articulation between the lateral surface of the lateral cuneiform and the anterior two-thirds of the medial surface of the cuboid.
cuneometatarsal j.'s tarsometatarsal j.'s
cuneonavicular j. the synovial joint between the anterior surface of the navicular and the posterior surfaces of the three cuneiform bones.articulatio cuneonavicularis [NA], cuneonavicular articulation;
dentoalveolar j. gomphosis
diarthrodial j. synovial j
digital j.'s interphalangeal j.'s of hand
DIP j.'s distal interphalangeal j.'s
distal interphalangeal j.'s the synovial j.'s between the middle and distal phalanges of the fingers and of the toes.DIP j.'s;
distal radioulnar j. the pivot synovial joint between the head of the ulna and the ulnar notch on the radius; an articular disk passes across the distal part of the joint.articulatio radioulnaris distalis [NA], distal radioulnar articulation, inferior radioulnar j;
distal tibiofibular j. tibiofibular syndesmosis
j.'s of ear bones j.'s of auditory ossicles
elbow j. a compound hinge synovial joint between the humerus and the bones of the forearm; it consists of the j. humeroradialis and the j. humeroulnaris.articulatio cubiti [NA], cubital j;
ellipsoidal j. a modified ball-and-socket synovial joint in which the joint surfaces are elongated or ellipsoidal; it is a biaxial joint, i.e., two axes of motion at right angles to each other, the radiocarpal being an example.articulatio ellipsoidea [NA], articulatio condylaris [NA], condylar articulation, condylar j;
enarthrodial j. ball-and-socket j
facet j.'s zygapophyseal j.'s
false j. pseudarthrosis
femoropatellar j. the articulation of the facets on the articular surface of the patella with corresponding surfaces on the femoral condyles.
fibrous j. a union of two bones by fibrous tissue such that there is no joint cavity and almost no motion possible; the types of fibrous joints are sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses.articulatio fibrosa [NA], immovable j., junctura fibrosa, synarthrodia, synarthrodial j. (1) ;
flail j. a j. with loss of function caused by loss of ability to stabilize the j. in any plane within its normal range of motion.
j.'s of foot j.'s including the talocrural, intertarsal, tarsometatarsal, intermetatarsal, metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints.articulationes pedis [NA], articulations of foot;
j.'s of free inferior limb j.'s of free lower limb
j.'s of free lower limb the joints uniting the bones of the free inferior limb to one another and to the pelvic girdle; they are the hip joint, knee joint, tibiofibular joints, and the joints of the ankle and foot.articulationes membri inferioris liberi [NA], j.'s of free inferior limb, juncturae membri inferioris liberi;
j.'s of free superior limb j.'s of free upper limb
j.'s of free upper limb the joints uniting the bones of the free superior limb girdle; they are the shoulder joint, elbow joint, radioulnar joints, and joints of the wrist and hand.articulationes membri superioris liberi [NA], j.'s of free superior limb, juncturae membri superioris liberi;
ginglymoid j. hinge j
gliding j. plane j
gompholic j. gomphosis
j.'s of hand these joints include the radiocarpal or wrist joint; intercarpal, carpometacarpal, intermetacarpal; metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints.articulationes manus [NA], articulations of hand;
j. of head of rib the synovial joint between a rib and bodies of two adjacent vertebrae; the joint cavity is divided by an intra-articular ligament which attaches to the intervertebral disk; the first, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth ribs articulate with only one vertebra.articulatio capitis costae [NA], capitular j;
hemophilic j. chronic arthroplasty due to repeated hemarthrosis in a hemophiliac.
hinge j. a uniaxial joint in which a broad, transversely cylindrical convexity on one bone fits into a corresponding concavity on the other, allowing of motion in one plane only, as in the elbow.ginglymus [NA], ginglymoid j;
hip j. the ball-and-socket synovial joint between the head of the femur and the acetabulum.articulatio coxae [NA], coxa (2), thigh j;
humeroradial j. the portion of the elbow joint between the capitulum of the humerus and the head of the radius.articulatio humeroradialis [NA], humeroradial articulation;
humeroulnar j. the portion of the elbow joint between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna.articulatio humeroulnaris [NA] ;
hysterical j. a simulation of j. disease, with symptoms of pain, possibly swelling, and impairment of motion.
immovable j. fibrous j
incudomalleolar j. the saddle synovial joint between the incus and the malleus.articulatio incudomallearis [NA], incudomalleolar articulation;
incudostapedial j. the synovial joint between the lenticular process on the long crus of the incus and the head of the stapes.articulatio incudostapedia [NA], incudostapedial articulation;
j.'s of inferior limb girdle j.'s of pelvic girdle
inferior radioulnar j. distal radioulnar j
inferior tibiofibular j. tibiofibular syndesmosis
interarticular j.'s zygapophyseal j.'s
intercarpal j.'s the synovial joints between the carpal bones.articulationes intercarpeae [NA], carpal j.'s (1) ;
interchondral j.'s the synovial joints between the contiguous surfaces of the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth costal cartilages, forming the costal arch.articulationes interchondrales [NA], interchondral articulations;
intercuneiform j.'s the articulations between contiguous surfaces of the cuneiform bones.
intermetacarpal j.'s the synovial joints between the bases of the second, third, fourth, and fifth metacarpal bones.articulationes intermetacarpeae [NA] ;
intermetatarsal j.'s the synovial joints between the bases of the five metatarsal bones.articulationes intermetatarseae [NA], intermetatarsal articulations;
interphalangeal j.'s of hand the hinge synovial j.'s between the phalanges of the fingers.articulationes interphalangeae manus [NA], digital j.'s, interphalangeal articulations, phalangeal j.'s;
interphalangeal j.'s of foot the hinge synovial j.'s between the phalanges of the toes.articulationes interphalangeae pedis [NA] ;
intersternebral j.'s synchondroses intersternebrales, under synchondrosis
intertarsal j.'s the synovial joints which unite the tarsal bones.articulationes intertarseae [NA], intertarsal articulations, tarsal j.'s;
jaw j. temporomandibular j
knee j. a compound condylar synovial joint consisting of the joint between the condyles of the femur and the condyles of the tibia, articular menisci (semilunar cartilages) being interposed, and the articulation between femur and patella.articulatio genus [NA] ;
lateral atlantoaxial j. a condylar synovial joint between the inferior articular facets of the atlas and the superior articular facets of the axis.articulatio atlantoaxialis lateralis [NA], lateral atlantoepistrophic j;
lateral atlantoepistrophic j. lateral atlantoaxial j
Lisfranc's j.'s tarsometatarsal j.'s
lumbosacral j. the articulation of the fifth lumbar vertebra with the sacrum.articulatio lumbosacralis [NA], junctura lumbosacralis;
Luschka's j.'s uncovertebral j.'s
mandibular j. temporomandibular j
manubriosternal j. the early union, by hyaline cartilage, of the manubrium and the body of the sternum, which later becomes a symphysial type of joint.synchondrosis manubriosternalis [NA] ;
median atlantoaxial j. a pivot synovial joint between the dens of the axis and the ring formed by the anterior arch and the transverse ligament of the atlas.articulatio atlantoaxialis mediana [NA], Cruveilhier's j., middle atlantoepistrophic j;
metacarpophalangeal j.'s the spheroid synovial joints between the heads of the metacarpals and the bases of the proximal phalanges.articulationes metacarpophalangeae [NA], metacarpophalangeal articulations, MP j.'s (1) ;
metatarsophalangeal j.'s the spheroid synovial joints between the heads of the metatarsals and the bases of the proximal phalanges of the toes.articulationes metatarsophalangeae [NA], metatarsophalangeal articulations, MP j.'s (2) ;
midcarpal j. the synovial joint between the proximal and distal rows of carpal bones.articulatio mediocarpea [NA], middle carpal j;
middle atlantoepistrophic j. median atlantoaxial j
middle carpal j. midcarpal j
middle radioulnar j. radioulnar syndesmosis
midtarsal j. transverse tarsal j
mortise j. ankle j
movable j. synovial j
MP j.'s 1. metacarpophalangeal j.'s 2. metatarsophalangeal j.'s
multiaxial j. one in which movement occurs in a number of axes. See ball-and-socket j.polyaxial j;
neurocentral j. neurocentral synchondrosis
neuropathic j. destructive j. disease caused by diminished proprioceptive sensation, with gradual destruction of the j. by repeated subliminal injury, commonly associated with tabes dorsalis or diabetic neuropathy.neuropathic arthritis, neuropathic arthropathy;
j.'s of pectoral girdle the joints uniting the scapulae and clavicles to each other and the latter to the sternum forming the superior limb girdle; these are the acromioclavicular and the sternoclavicular joints.articulationes cinguli membri superioris [NA], j.'s of superior limb girdle, juncturae cinguli membri superioris;
peg-and-socket j. gomphosis
j.'s of pelvic girdle the j.'s that unite the sacrum and the two hip bones to form the pelvic girdle; these are the sacroiliac j.'s, the pubic symphysis, the sacrotuberal and sacrospinal ligaments, and the obturator membrane.articulationes cinguli membri inferioris [NA], j.'s of inferior limb girdle;
petro-occipital j. fibrocartilage filling the petro-occipital fissure.synchondrosis petro-occipitalis [NA] ;
phalangeal j.'s interphalangeal j.'s of hand
PIP j.'s proximal interphalangeal j.'s
pisotriquetral j. the synovial joint between the pisiform and triquetrum; it is separate from the other intercarpal joints.articulatio ossis pisiformis [NA], articulation of pisiform bone;
pivot j. a synovial joint in which a section of a cylinder of one bone fits into a corresponding cavity on the other, as in the proximal radioulnar joint.articulatio trochoidea [NA], helicoid ginglymus, lateral ginglymus, rotary j., rotatory j., trochoid articulation, trochoid j;
plane j. a synovial joint in which the opposing surfaces are nearly planes and in which there is only a slight, gliding motion, as in the intermetacarpal joints.articulatio plana [NA], arthrodia, arthrodial articulation, arthrodial j., gliding j;
polyaxial j. multiaxial j
posterior intraoccipital j. posterior intraoccipital synchondrosis
proximal interphalangeal j.'s the synovial j.'s between the proximal and middle phalanges of the fingers and of the toes.PIP j.'s;
proximal radioulnar j. the pivot synovial joint between the head of the radius and the ring formed by the radial notch of the ulna and the annular ligament.articulatio radioulnaris proximalis [NA], proximal radioulnar articulation, superior radioulnar j;
proximal tibiofibular j. the plane synovial joint between the lateral condyle of the tibia and the head of the fibula.articulatio tibiofibularis [NA], superior tibial articulation, superior tibiofibular j., tibiofibular articulation (1) ;
radiocarpal j. wrist j
rotary j. , rotatory j. pivot j
sacrococcygeal j. the cartilaginous articulation of the coccyx with the sacrum.articulatio sacrococcygea [NA], coccygeal j., junctura sacrococcygea, sacrococcygeal junction, symphysis sacrococcygea;
sacroiliac j. the synovial joint on either side between the auricular surface of the sacrum and that of the ilium.articulatio sacroiliaca [NA], sacroiliac articulation;
saddle j. a biaxial synovial joint in which the double motion is effected by the opposition of two surfaces, each of which is concave in one direction and convex in the other; as in the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.articulatio sellaris [NA], articulatio ovoidalis;
schindyletic j. wedge-and-groove j
screw j. cochlear j
shoulder j. a ball-and-socket synovial joint between the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula.articulatio humeri [NA], glenohumeral articulation, humeral articulation;
simple j. one composed of two bones only.articulatio simplex [NA] ;
socket j. ball-and-socket j
spheno-occipital j. spheno-occipital synchondrosis
spheroid j. ball-and-socket j
spiral j. cochlear j
sternal j.'s sternal synchondroses, under synchondrosis
sternoclavicular j. the synovial articulation between the medial end of the clavicle and the manubrium of the sternum and cartilage of the first rib; an articular disk subdivides the joint into two cavities.articulatio sternoclavicularis [NA] ;
sternocostal j.'s the joints between the cartilages of the first seven ribs and the sternum; synovial cavities are variable in occurrence in these joints.articulationes sternocostales [NA], sternocostal articulations;
stifle j. the femorotibial articulation in the hind leg of the horse and other quadrupeds; it corresponds to the knee in humans.stifle;
subtalar j. a plane synovial joint between the inferior surface of the talus and the posterior articular surface of the calcaneus. The term is also used clinically to refer to the compound joint formed by the talocalcaneal and talocalcaneonavicular joints.articulatio subtalaris [NA], talocalcaneal j;
j.'s of superior limb girdle j.'s of pectoral girdle
superior radioulnar j. proximal radioulnar j
superior tibiofibular j. proximal tibiofibular j
suture j. suture
synarthrodial j. 1. fibrous j 2. cartilaginous j
synchondrodial j. synchondrosis
syndesmodial j. , syndesmotic j. syndesmosis
synovial j. a joint in which the opposing bony surfaces are covered with a layer of hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage, there is a joint cavity containing synovial fluid, lined with synovial membrane and reinforced by a fibrous capsule and ligaments, and there is some degree of free movement possible.articulatio synovialis [NA], diarthrodial j., diarthrosis, junctura synovialis, movable j., perarticulation;
talocalcaneal j. subtalar j
talocalcaneonavicular j. a ball-and-socket synovial joint, part of which participates in the transverse tarsal joint, formed by the head of the talus articulating with the navicular bone and the anterior part of the calcaneus.articulatio talocalcaneonavicularis [NA] ;
talocrural j. ankle j
talonavicular j. the part of the talocalcaneonavicular j. which forms the medial element of the compound transverse tarsal j.
tarsal j.'s intertarsal j.'s
tarsometatarsal j.'s the three synovial joints between the tarsal and metatarsal bones, consisting of a medial joint between the first cuneiform and first metatarsal, an intermediate joint between the second and third cuneiforms and corresponding metatarsals, and a lateral joint between the cuboid and fourth and fifth metatarsals.articulationes tarsometatarseae [NA], cuneometatarsal j.'s, Lisfranc's j.'s;
temporomandibular j. the synovial articulation between the head of the mandible and the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone; a fibrocartilaginous articular disk divides the joint into two cavities.articulatio temporomandibularis [NA], articulatio mandibularis, jaw j., mandibular j., temporomandibular articulation;
thigh j. hip j
transverse tarsal j. the synovial joints between the talus and navicular bone medially and the calcaneus and navicular bones laterally which act as a unit in allowing the front of the foot to pivot relative to the back of the foot about the longitudinal axis of the foot, contributing to the total inversion and eversion movements.articulatio tarsi transversa [NA], Chopart's j., midtarsal j., transverse tarsal articulation;
trochoid j. pivot j
uncovertebral j.'s small synovial j.'s between adjacent lateral lips of the bodies of the lower cervical vertebrae.Luschka's j.'s;
uniaxial j. one in which movement is around one axis only.
unilocular j. one in which an intra-articular disk is incomplete or absent, the j. having but a single cavity.
wedge-and-groove j. a form of fibrous joint in which the sharp edge of one bone is received in a cleft in the edge of the other, as in the articulation of the vomer with the rostrum of the sphenoid.schindylesis [NA], schindyletic j., wedge-and-groove suture;
wrist j. the synovial joint between the distal end of the radius and its articular disk and the proximal row of carpal bones with the exception of the pisiform bone.articulatio radiocarpea [NA], carpal articulation, carpal j.'s (2), radiocarpal articulation, radiocarpal j;
xiphisternal j. the cartilaginous union between the xiphoid process and the body of the sternum.synchondrosis xiphosternalis [NA] ;
zygapophyseal j.'s the synovial joints between zygapophyses or articular processes of the vertebrae.articulationes zygapophyseales [NA], facet j.'s, interarticular j.'s, juncturae zygapophyseales;

 

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