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kidney (kid´ne)

One of the two organs that excrete the urine. The k.'s are bean-shaped organs (about 11 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 3 cm thick) lying on either side of the vertebral column, posterior to the peritoneum, about opposite the twelfth thoracic and first three lumbar [NA], nephros; [A.S. cwith, womb, belly, + neere, kidney (L. ren, G. nephros)]
amyloid k. a k. in which amyloidosis has occurred, usually in association with some chronic illness such as multiple myeloma, tuberculosis, osteomyelitis, or other chronic suppurative inflammation; such k.'s are moderately enlarged and grossly manifest a waxy appearance, with amyloid deposited beneath the endothelium in the glomerular loops and in the arterioles, apparently beginning as foci of thickening of the basement membranes.waxy k;
Armanni-Ebstein k. glycogen vacuolization of the loops of Henle, seen in diabetics before the introduction of insulin.Armanni-Ebstein change;
arteriolosclerotic k. a k. in which there is sclerosis of the arterioles, i.e., arteriolar nephrosclerosis resulting from long-standing benign hypertension. Such k.'s tend to be pale red-brown or relatively gray, moderately reduced in size, and firmer than normal organs; the capsular surfaces are uniformly finely granular. Most of the arterioles are thickened and hyalinized, thereby resulting in varying degrees of narrowing of the lumens, ischemia, and fibrosis in the interstitial tissue, leading to uniform contraction of the cortex.
arteriosclerotic k. a k. in which there is sclerosis of arterial vessels larger than arterioles. Such k.'s are usually not significantly reduced in size, but are likely to be paler than usual; the capsular surface may be marked by a few, possibly several, conical, relatively deep V-shaped scars that result from fibrosis and ischemic atrophy of the region supplied by the affected vessel.
artificial k. hemodialyzer
Ask-Upmark k. true renal hypoplasia with decreased lobules and deep transverse grooving of the cortical surfaces of the kidney.
atrophic k. a k. that is diminished in size because of inadequate circulation and/or loss of nephrons.
cake k. a solid, irregularly lobed organ of bizarre shape, usually situated in the pelvis toward the midline, produced by fusion of the renal anlagen.
contracted k. a diffusely scarred k. in which the relatively large amount of abnormal fibrous tissue and ischemic atrophy leads to a moderate or great reduction in the size of the organ, as in arteriolar nephrosclerosis and chronic glomerulonephritis.
cow k. a k. containing an abnormally large number of minor calices, resembling normal bovine renal anatomy.
crush k. acute oliguric renal failure following crushing injuries of muscle; k.'s show the changes of hypoxic tubular damage, plus pigment casts in renal tubules that contain myoglobin.
cystic k. a general term used to indicate a k. that contains one or more cysts, including polycystic disease, solitary cyst, multiple simple cysts, and retention cysts (associated with parenchymal scarring).
disk k. pancake k
duplex k. a k. in which two pelviocaliceal systems are present.
fatty k. a k. in which there is fatty metamorphosis of the parenchymal cells, especially fatty degeneration.
flea-bitten k. the k. seen at autopsy in some cases of bacterial endocarditis, the appearance being caused by diffuse petechial hemorrhages resulting from focal glomerulonephritis.
floating k. the abnormally mobile k. in nephroptosia.movable k., wandering k;
Formad's k. an enlarged and deformed k. sometimes seen in chronic alcoholism.
fused k. a single, anomalous organ produced by fusion of the renal anlagen.
Goldblatt k. a k. whose arterial blood supply has been compromised, as a consequence of which arterial (renovascular) hypertension develops.
granular k. a k. in which fairly uniform, diffusely and evenly situated foci of scarring of the interstitial tissue of the cortex (and sometimes scarring of glomeruli), and the associated slight degree of bulging of groups of dilated tubules, leads to the development of a minutely bosselated surface; such k.'s are seen in arteriolar nephrosclerosis or chronic glomerulonephritis.sclerotic k;
head k. pronephros (1)
hind k. metanephros
horseshoe k. union of the lower or occasionally the upper extremities of the two k.'s by a band of tissue extending across the vertebral column.
medullary sponge k. cystic disease of the renal pyramids associated with calculus formation and hematuria; differs from cystic disease of the renal medulla in that renal failure does not usually develop.
middle k. mesonephros
mortar k. putty k
movable k. floating k
pancake k. a disk-shaped organ produced by fusion of both poles of the contralateral k. anlagen.disk k;
pelvic k. k. that has been displaced into the pelvis.
polycystic k. a progressive disease characterized by formation of multiple cysts of varying size scattered diffusely throughout both k.'s, resulting in compression and destruction of k. parenchyma, usually with hypertension, gross hematuria, and uremia; there are two major types: 1) with onset in infancy or early childhood, usually with autosomal recessive inheritance [MIM*263200]; 2) with onset in adulthood, with autosomal dominant inheritance [MIM*174000].polycystic disease of kidneys;
primordial k. pronephros
putty k. a k. containing caseous material trapped by stricture of the ureter due to tuberculous granulations in renal tuberculosis.mortar k;
pyelonephritic k. a k. deformed by multiple scars as a result of chronic or recurrent renal infection.
Rose-Bradford k. a form of fibrotic k. of inflammatory origin found in young persons.
sclerotic k. granular k
sigmoid k. upper pole of one k. fused with the lower pole of the other.
supernumerary k. a k., in addition to the two usually present, developed from the splitting of the nephrogenic blastema or from a separate metanephric blastema, into which a partial or complete reduplication of the ureteral stalk enters to form a separate, capsulated k.; in some cases, the separation of the reduplicated organ is incomplete.
thoracic k. ectopic k. that partially lies above the diaphragm in the posterior mediastinum.
wandering k. floating k
waxy k. amyloid k


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