anemia

anemia (a-ne´me-a)

Any condition in which the number of red blood cells per cu mm, the amount of hemoglobin in 100 ml of blood, and the volume of packed red blood cells per 100 ml of blood are less than normal; clinically, generally pertaining to the concentration of oxygen-transporting material in a designated volume of blood, in contrast to total quantities as in oligocythemia, oligochromemia, and oligemia. A. is frequently manifested by pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, shortness of breath, palpitations of the heart, soft systolic murmurs, lethargy, and fatigability. [G. anaimia, fr. an- priv. + haima, blood]
achlorhydric a. a form of chronic hypochromic microcytic a. associated with achlorhydria or achylia gastrica; observed most frequently in women in the third to fifth decades.Faber's a., Faber's syndrome;
achrestic a. a form of chronic progressive macrocytic a. that can be fatal in which the changes in bone marrow and circulating blood closely resemble those of pernicious a., but in which there is only transient or no response to therapy with vitamin B12; glossitis, gastrointestinal disturbances, central nervous system disease, and pyrexia are not observed, and there is only little bleeding or hemolysis. [G. a- priv. + chresis, a using]
acquired hemolytic a. nonhereditary acute or chronic a. associated with or caused by extracorpuscular factors, e.g., certain infectious agents, chemicals (including autoantibodies or therapeutic agents), burns, toxic materials from higher plant and animal forms (including snake venoms).
addisonian a. pernicious a
Addison's a. pernicious a
angiopathic hemolytic a. a rare postpartum a. of unknown etiology with uremia and nephrosclerosis; may be a rare complication following use of contraceptive steroids.
aplastic a. a. characterized by a greatly decreased formation of erythrocytes and hemoglobin, usually associated with pronounced granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia, as a result of hypoplastic or aplastic bone marrow.a. gravis, Ehrlich's a;
asiderotic a. chlorosis
autoimmune hemolytic a. 1. cold-antibody type, caused by hemagglutinating antibody (usually IgM class) maximally active at 4°C; and resulting from severe hemolysis in cold hemagglutinin disease; 2. warm-antibody type, acquired hemolytic a. due to serum autoantibodies (usually IgG class) maximally active at 37°C; that react with the patient's red blood cells; it varies in severity, occurs in all age groups of both sexes, and may be idiopathic or secondary to neoplastic, autoimmune, or other disease. The Coombs test is positive for IgG and complement, IgG alone, or complement alone.
Bartonella a. a. occurring in infection with Bartonella bacilliformis and characterized by an acute febrile a. of rapid onset and high mortality. Occurs in central Andean mountains of northern South America; vector is phlebotomine sandfly, Lutzomyia.
Belgian Congo a. kasai
Biermer's a. pernicious a
brickmaker's a. a. associated with hookworm disease.
cameloid a. elliptocytic a
chlorotic a. chlorosis
congenital a. erythroblastosis fetalis
congenital aplastic a. Fanconi's a
congenital dyserythropoietic a. a group of autosomal recessive a.'s characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis, bone marrow erythroblastic multinuclearity, and secondary hemochromatosis. Three types are described: type I [MIM224100], macrocytic, megaloblastic a. with erythroblastic internuclear chromatin bridges; type II , [MIM*224100], normoblastic a. with multinucleated erythroblasts; type III , macrocytic a. with erythroblastic multinuclearity and gigantoblasts [MIM*105600].
congenital hemolytic a. accelerated destruction of red blood cells due to an inherited defect, such as in the membrane in hereditary spherocytosis.
congenital hypoplastic a. [MIM*205900] congenital nonregenerative, familial hypoplastic, or pure red cell a.; erythrogenesis imperfecta; Diamond-Blackfan syndrome; autosomal recessive normocytic normochromic a. resulting from congenital hypoplasia of the bone marrow, which is grossly deficient in erythroid precursors while other elements are normal; a. is progressive and severe, but leukocyte and platelet counts are normal or slightly reduced; survival of transfused erythrocytes is normal; minor congenital anomalies are found in some patients.congenital nonregenerative a., Diamond-Blackfan a., Diamond-Blackfan syndrome, erythrogenesis imperfecta, familial hypoplastic a., pure red cell a;
congenital nonregenerative a. congenital hypoplastic a
Cooley's a. thalassemia major
cow milk a. a. occurring in infants fed cow milk without iron supplementation, attributed to digestive tract allergic reaction leading to blood loss and hence iron deficiency.
crescent cell a. sickle cell a
deficiency a. nutritional a
Diamond-Blackfan a. congenital hypoplastic a
dilution a. hydremia
dimorphic a. a. in which two distinct forms of red cells are circulating.
diphyllobothrium a. a rare form of macrocytic a. associated with Diphyllobothrium latum infection, especially in Finland.fish tapeworm a;
drepanocytic a. sickle cell a
dyshemopoietic a. any a. resulting from defective function of the bone marrow.
Ehrlich's a. aplastic a
elliptocytary a. (e-lip´to-sI´tar-e) a. with elliptocytosis; a heterogeneous group of inherited a.'s having in common elliptical red cells on blood smear. The defect may reside in dysfunction or deficiency of proteins of the red cell membrane skeleton.elliptocytotic a;
elliptocytic a. a. characterized by elliptical erythrocytes (ovalocytes) resembling those observed normally in camels; 1 to 15% of erythrocytes in nonanemic persons may be oval, but greater proportions are observed in certain patients with microcytic a. See also elliptocytosis.cameloid a., ovalocytic a;
elliptocytotic a. (e-lip´to-sI-tot´ik) elliptocytary a
equine infectious a. a worldwide infectious disease of horses and other equids, caused by equine infectious a. virus and a member of the family Retroviridae, marked by general debility, remittent fever, staggering gait, progressive a., and loss of flesh; it is transmitted by bloodsucking insects and by contact, oral infection, or the use of unsterilized syringes and needles.swamp fever (1);
erythroblastic a. erythronormoblastic a
erythronormoblastic a. (e-rith´ro-nor´mo-blast- ik) a. characterized by the presence of large numbers of nucleated red cells (normoblasts and erythroblasts) in the peripheral blood. Seen especially in newborns with hemolytic a., such as that caused by Rh or ABO incompatibility.erythroblastic a;
essential a. obsolete term for pernicious a.; also used formerly for any type of a. of unknown mechanism.
Faber's a. achlorhydric a
false a. pseudoanemia
familial erythroblastic a. an outmoded term for thalassemia major.
familial hypoplastic a. congenital hypoplastic a
familial microcytic a. [MIM*206200] a rare type of autosomal recessive hypochromic microcytic a. associated with a defect of iron metabolism characterized by high serum iron, hepatic iron deposits, and absence of stainable bone marrow iron stores.
familial pyridoxine-responsive a. [MIM*206000] a rare autosomal recessive hereditary hypochromic a.; autosomal trait, responsive to pyridoxine.
familial splenic a. Gaucher's disease
Fanconi's a. a type of idiopathic refractory a. characterized by pancytopenia, hypoplasia of the bone marrow, and congenital anomalies, occurring in members of the same family (an autosomal recessive trait in at least two nonallelic types [MIM*227650 and 227660]); the a. is normocytic or slightly macrocytic, macrocytes and target cells may be found in the circulating blood, and the leukopenia usually is due to neutropenia; congenital anomalies include short stature, microcephaly, hypogenitalism, strabismus, anomalies of the thumbs, radii, and kidneys, mental retardation, and microphthalmia.congenital aplastic a., congenital pancytopenia, Fanconi's syndrome (1);
feline infectious a. (FIA) an acute or chronic a. of domestic cats caused by the rickettsia Haemobartonella felis.hemobartonellosis;
fish tapeworm a. diphyllobothrium a
folic acid deficiency a. a. due to deficiency of folic acid, characterized by large-sized red blood cells (macrocytosis) and presence of large nuclei in erythroid precursor cells (megaloblasts) in the bone marrow.
globe cell a. hereditary spherocytosis
goat's milk a. nutritional a. in infants maintained chiefly with goat's milk, which is relatively poor in iron content.
a. gra´vis aplastic a
ground itch a. a. associated with hookworm disease.
Heinz body a. See unstable hemoglobin hemolytic a.
hemolytic a. any a. resulting from an increased rate of erythrocyte destruction.
hemolytic a. of newborn 1. erythroblastosis fetalis 2. a disease similar to erythroblastosis fetalis, seen in foals, piglets, and puppies.
hemorrhagic a. a. resulting directly from loss of blood.
hookworm a. a. associated with heavy infestation by Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus.
hyperchromic a. , hyperchromatic a. a. characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal; the individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could under optimal conditions.
hypochromic a. a. characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal; the individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions.
hypochromic microcytic a. a. due to iron deficiency or thalassemia, and characterized by lower than normal mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.
hypoferric a. iron deficiency a
hypoplastic a. progressive nonregenerative a. resulting from greatly depressed, inadequately functioning bone marrow; as the process persists, aplastic a. may occur.
icterohemolytic a. hereditary spherocytosis
infectious a. a. developing as a complication of infection; probably results from depressed formation and short survival of erythrocytes and abnormal iron metabolism.
intertropical a. an obsolete term for a. occurring in hookworm disease, chiefly necatoriasis.
iron deficiency a. hypochromic microcytic a. characterized by low serum iron, increased serum iron-binding capacity, decreased serum ferritin, and decreased marrow iron stores.hypoferric a;
isochromic a. normochromic a
lead a. a. associated with poisoning from lead; thought to result from a defect in synthesis of hemoglobin based on the failure of iron being combined in the porphyrin ring.
Lederer's a. obsolete eponym for a form of acute acquired hemolytic a. associated with abnormal hemolysins and sometimes with hemoglobinuria.
leukoerythroblastic a. leukoerythroblastosis
local a. a. resulting from a decreased supply of blood to a part, as in the occlusion of a vessel.
macrocytic a. any a. in which the average size of circulating erythrocytes is greater than normal, i.e., the mean corpuscular volume is 94 cu mum or more (normal range, 82 to 92 cu mum), including such syndromes as pernicious a., sprue, celiac disease, macrocytic a. of pregnancy, a. of diphyllobothriasis, and others.megalocytic a;
macrocytic achylic a. pernicious a
macrocytic a. of pregnancy an a. occurring in pregnancy, related to folate deficiency and characterized by a low level of hemoglobin and a reduced number of erythrocytes, which are larger than normal (macrocytes).
macrocytic a. tropical the macrocytic, megaloblastic a. of tropical sprue.
malignant a. pernicious a
Marchiafava-Micheli a. paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
megaloblastic a. any a. in which there is a predominant number of megaloblastic erythroblasts, and relatively few normoblasts, among the hyperplastic erythroid cells in the bone marrow (as in pernicious a.).
megalocytic a. macrocytic a
metaplastic a. pernicious a. in which the various formed elements in the blood are changed, e.g., multisegmented, unusually large neutrophils (macropolycytes), immature myeloid cells, bizarre platelets.
microangiopathic hemolytic a. hemolysis due to narrowing or obstruction of small blood vessels usually due to inflammation, causing fragmentation and distortion in the shape of red blood cells.
microcytic a. any a. in which the average size of circulating erythrocytes is smaller than normal, i.e., the mean corpuscular volume is 80 cu mum or less (normal range, 82 to 92 cu mum).
microdrepanocytic a. a., clinically resembling sickle cell a., in which individuals are compound heterozygous for the sickle cell gene and a thalassemia gene; about 60 to 80% of hemoglobin is Hb S, up to 20% Hb F, and the remainder Hb A.sickle cell-thalassemia disease;
milk a. a type of hypochromic microcytic a., resulting from deficiency of iron, occurring in infants maintained on a milk diet for too long a time.
mountain a. term sometimes used for mountain sickness.
myelophthisic a. , myelopathic a. leukoerythroblastosis
neonatal a. erythroblastosis fetalis
a. neonato´rum erythroblastosis fetalis
normochromic a. any a. in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocytes is within the normal range, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is from 32 to 36%.isochromic a;
normocytic a. any a. in which the erythrocytes are normal in size, i.e., the mean corpuscular volume ranges from 82 to 92 cu mum.
nutritional a. any a. resulting from a dietary deficiency of materials essential to red blood cell formation, e.g., iron, vitamins (especially folic acid), protein.deficiency a;
nutritional macrocytic a. macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia due to deficiency of either folate or vitamin B12.
osteosclerotic a. a. due to compromise of erythropoiesis due to osteosclerosis.
ovalocytic a. elliptocytic a
pernicious a. [MIM*361000] a chronic progressive a. of older adults (occurring more frequently during the fifth and later decades, rarely prior to 30 years of age), due to failure of absorption of Vitamin B 12, usually resulting from a defect of the stomach accompanied by mucosal atrophy and associated with lack of secretion of "intrinsic" factor; characterized by numbness and tingling, weakness, and a sore smooth tongue, as well as dyspnea after slight exertion, faintness, pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, anorexia, diarrhea, loss of weight, and fever; laboratory studies usually reveal greatly decreased red blood cell counts, low levels of hemoglobin, numerous characteristically oval shaped macrocytic erythrocytes (color index greater than normal, but not truly hyperchromic), and hypo- or achlorhydria, in association with a predominant number of megaloblasts and relatively few normoblasts in the bone marrow; the leukocyte count in peripheral blood may be less than normal, with relative lymphocytosis and hypersegmented neutrophils; a low level of vitamin B12 is found in peripheral red blood cells; administration of vitamin B12 results in a characteristic reticulocyte response, relief from symptoms, and an increase in erythrocytes, provided that pernicious a. is not complicated by another disease; the condition is not actually "pernicious," as it was prior to the availability of therapy with vitamin B12. At least two autosomal recessive forms are known. In one there is a defect of intrinsic factor [MIM*26100] and in the other a defective absorption of vitamin B12 from the intestine [MIM*261100].Addison's a., Addison-Biermer disease, addisonian a., Biermer's a., Biermer's disease, macrocytic achylic a., malignant a;
physiologic a. an obsolete term for apparent a. caused by increased fluid volume of the blood (overhydration).
polar a. a form of a. sometimes observed in natives of temperate climates when they migrate to the Arctic or Antarctic regions.
posthemorrhagic a. an acute a. caused by fairly sudden and rapid loss of blood, as by traumatic laceration of a relatively large vessel, erosion of an artery in a duodenal ulcer, hemorrhage in an ectopic pregnancy, or the result of such diseases as hemophilia and acute leukemia.traumatic a;
primary erythroblastic a. thalassemia major
primary refractory a. any of a group of anemic conditions in which there is persistent, frequently advanced a. that is not successfully treated by any means except blood transfusions, and that is not associated with another primary disease.
pure red cell a. congenital hypoplastic a
radiation a. hypoplastic a. sometimes occurring after high-level acute or low-level chronic exposure to ionizing radiation.
refractory a. 1. progressive a. unresponsive to therapy other than transfusion. See primary refractory a., secondary refractory a. See primary refractory a., secondary refractory a.
scorbutic a. a. occurring in patients with scurvy, usually due to coincident nutritional deficiency; e.g., the "megaloblastic a. of scurvy" is due to concomitant folic acid deficiency.
secondary refractory a. any persistent a. that is successfully treated only by blood transfusions, and that is associated with another condition.
sickle cell a. [MIM*141900] an autosomal dominant a. [MIM141900] characterized by crescent- or sickle-shaped erythrocytes and by accelerated hemolysis, due to substitution of a single amino acid (valine for glutamic acid) in the sixth position of the beta chain of hemoglobin; affected homozygotes have 85-95% Hb S and severe anemia, while heterozygotes (said to have sickle cell trait) have 40-45% Hb S, the rest being normal Hb A; low oxygen tension causes polymerization of the abnormal beta chains, thus distorting the shape of the red blood cells to the sickle form. Homozygotes develop "crises" episodes of severe pain due to microvascular occlusions, bone infarcts, leg ulcers, and atrophy of the spleen associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, especially streptococcal pneumonia.crescent cell a., drepanocytic a., sickle cell disease;
sideroblastic a. , sideroachrestic a. refractory a. characterized by the presence of sideroblasts in the bone marrow.
slaty a. an ash-gray pallor in poisoning from acetanelid or silver (argyria).
spastic a. local a. resulting from nontransitory contraction of the arterial vessels in the affected region.
spherocytic a. hereditary spherocytosis
splenic a. Banti's syndrome
target cell a. any a. with a conspicuous number of target cells in the peripheral blood; characteristic of the thalassemias and also found in several hemoglobinopathies.
toxic a. any a. resulting from the destructive effects of a chemical, metabolic poison, bacterial toxin, venom, and similar materials.
traumatic a. posthemorrhagic a
tropical a. various syndromes frequently observed in persons in tropical climates, usually resulting from nutritional deficiencies or hookworm or other parasitic diseases.
unstable hemoglobin hemolytic a. a congenital hemolytic a., due to autosomal inheritance of one of many unstable hemoglobins. The a. is of variable severity and characterized by the presence in vivo or in vitro of Heinz bodies.

 

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