The largest gland of the body, lying beneath the diaphragm in the right hypochondrium and upper part of the epigastrium; it is of irregular shape and weighs from 1 to 2 kg, or about 1 / 40 the weight of the body. It secretes the bile and is also of great importance in both carbohydrate and protein metabolism.hepar [NA]; [A.S. lifer]
cardiac l. cardiac cirrhosis
desiccated l. a dried undefatted powder prepared from mammalian l.'s used as human food; contains riboflavin, nicotinic acid, and choline; used in the treatment of macrocytic anemias and as a nutritional supplement.
fatty l. yellow discoloration of the l. due to fatty degeneration of l. parenchymal cells.hepatic steatosis;
frosted l. hyaloserositis of the liver.Curschmann's disease, icing l., sugar-icing l., zuckergussleber;
hobnail l. in Laënnec's cirrhosis, the contraction of scar tissue and hepatic cellular regeneration which causes a nodular appearance of the l.'s surface.
icing l. frosted l
lardaceous l. waxy l
nutmeg l. chronic passive congestion of the l., causing accentuation of the lobular pattern with red central and yellow or tan periportal zones.
pigmented l. a l. that contains pigment, such as occurs in Dubin-Johnson syndrome, hemochromatosis, long-standing malaria.
polycystic l. gradual cystic dilation of intralobular bile ducts (Meyenburg's complexes) that fail to involute in embryologic development of the l.; frequently associated with bilateral congenital polycystic kidneys and occasionally with cystic involvement of the pancreas, lungs, and other organs.polycystic liver disease;
sugar-icing l. frosted l
wandering l. hepatoptosis
waxy l. amyloid degeneration of the l.lardaceous l;
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