malaria

malaria (ma-lar´e-a)

A disease caused by the presence of the sporozoan Plasmodium in human or other vertebrate red blood cells, usually transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles that previously sucked the blood from a person with m. Human infection begins with the exoerythrocytic cycle in liver parenchyma cells, followed by a series of erythrocytic schizogenous cycles repeated at regular intervals; production of gametocytes in other red cells provides future gametes for another mosquito infection; characterized by episodic severe chills and high fever, prostration, occasionally fatal termination. See tropical diseases, under disease. See also Plasmodium.jungle fever, marsh fever, paludal fever, swamp fever (2); [It. malo (fem. mala), bad, + aria, air, referring to the old theory of the miasmatic origin of the disease]
acute m. a form of m. that may be intermittent or remittent, consisting of a chill accompanied and followed by fever with its attendant general symptoms, and terminating in a sweating stage; the paroxysms, caused by release of merozoites from infected cells, recur every 48 hours in tertian (vivax or ovale) m., every 72 hours in quartan (malariae) m., and at indefinite but frequent intervals, usually about 48 hours, in malignant tertian (falciparum) m.
algid m. a form of falciparum m. chiefly involving the gut and other abdominal viscera; gastric algid m. is characterized by persistent vomiting; dysenteric algid m. is characterized by bloody diarrheic stools in which enormous numbers of infected red blood cells are found.
autochthonous m. disease acquired by mosquito transmission in an area where m. regularly occurs.
avian m. plasmodial infections of domestic and wild birds, transmitted chiefly by culicine mosquitoes.
benign tertian m. vivax m
bilious remittent m. a form of falciparum m. characterized by bilious vomiting, bilious diarrhea, etc.
cerebral m. a form of falciparum m. characterized by cerebral involvement, with extreme hyperthermia and headache, and a case fatality rate of about 50%.
chronic m. m. that develops after frequently repeated attacks of one of the acute forms, usually falciparum m.; it is characterized by profound anemia, enlargement of the spleen, emaciation, mental depression, sallow complexion, edema of ankles, feeble digestion, and muscular weakness.limnemia, malarial cachexia;
m. comato´sa falciparum m. complicated by coma.
double tertian m. See quotidian m.
dysenteric algid m. See algid m.
falciparum m. m. caused by Plasmodium falciparum and characterized by malarial paroxysms of severe form that occur every 48 hours with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations in severe cases, chiefly caused by the large number of red blood cells affected and the tendency for infected red cells to become sticky and clump, thus blocking capillaries. See also malarial knobs, under knob.aestivoautumnal fever, falciparum fever, malignant tertian fever, malignant tertian m., pernicious m;
gastric algid m. See algid m.
induced m. m. acquired by artificial means, e.g., via blood transfusion, common syringes, or malariotherapy.
intermittent m. a malarial fever, usually of the tertian or quartan type, in which there is complete apyrexia, with absence of the other symptoms, in the intervals between the paroxysms.
malariae m. a malarial fever with paroxysms that recur every 72 hours or every fourth day, reckoning the day of the paroxysm as the first; due to the schizogony and release of merozoites from infected cells, with invasion of new red blood corpuscles by Plasmodium malariae.quartan fever, quartan m;
malignant tertian m. falciparum m
monkey m. simian m
nonan m. a malarial fever with paroxysms that occur every ninth day, i.e., every eighth day following the preceding paroxysm, the day of each paroxysm being included in the computation.
ovale m. , ovale tertian m. m. caused by Plasmodium ovale.
pernicious m. falciparum m
quartan m. malariae m
quotidian m. m. in which the paroxysms occur daily; usually a double tertian m., in which there is an infection by two distinct groups of Plasmodium vivax parasites sporulating alternately every 48 hours, but also may be an infection by the pernicious form of malarial parasite, P. falciparum, combined with P. vivax, or infection by two distinct P. falciparum generations, which mature on different days; also may develop from infection with P. knowlesi.quotidian fever;
relapsing m. renewal of clinical activity at some interval after the primary attack.
remittent m. a malarial fever, usually of the severe falciparum type, in which the temperature falls but not to the normal level during the interval between two pronounced paroxysms.
simian m. plasmodial infection of monkeys and apes, as with human m., transmitted chiefly by anopheline mosquitoes; a number of Plasmodium species are responsible, with Southeast Asia and Africa being the apparent centers of evolution; among the 20 plasmodial agents described from nonhuman primates, some resemble and induce a malarial infection similar to those caused by the four species of Plasmodium from humans, from which the agents of human m. appear to be derived.monkey m;
tertian m. vivax m
therapeutic m. intentionally induced m., formerly used against neurosyphilis and certain other paralytic diseases; the mechanism is thought to be immunological, with Plasmodium antibodies cross-reacting against the spirochetes or other agents.
vivax m. a malarial fever with paroxysms that recur every 48 hours or every other day (every third day, reckoning the day of the paroxysm as the first); the fever is induced by release of merozoites and their invasion of new red blood corpuscles.benign tertian m., tertian fever, tertian m., vivax fever;

 

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