metabolism

metabolism (me-tab´o-lizm)

1. The sum of the chemical and physical changes occurring in tissue, consisting of anabolism, those reactions that convert small molecules into large, and catabolism, those reactions that convert large molecules into small, including both endogenous large molecules as well as biodegradation of xenobiotics. 2. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for either anabolism or catabolism. [G. metabole, change]
basal m. oxygen utilization of an individual during minimal physiologic activity while awake; an obsolete test determined by measuring oxygen consumption of a fasting subject at complete bodily and mental rest and a room temperature of 20°C.basal metabolic rate;
carbohydrate m. oxidation, breakdown, and synthesis of carbohydrates in the tissues.
electrolyte m. the chemical changes that various essential minerals (e.g., sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium) undergo in the tissues.
energy m. those metabolic reactions whose role is to release or to provide energy.
fat m. oxidation, decomposition, and synthesis of fats in the tissues.
inborn error of m. a genetic biochemical disorder of a specific enzyme that forms a metabolic block, e.g., phenylketonuria.
intermediary m. the sum of all metabolic reactions between uptake of foodstuffs and formation of excretory products.
oxidative m. ventilation (2)
primary m. metabolic processes central to most cells; e.g., biosynthesis of macromolecules, energy production, turnover, etc.
protein m. decomposition and synthesis of protein in the tissues.proteometabolism;
respiratory m. the exchange of respiratory gases in the lungs, oxidation of foodstuffs in the tissues, and production of carbon dioxide and water.
secondary m. metabolic processes in which substances (such as pigments, alkaloids, terpenes, etc.) are only synthesized in certain types of tissues or cells or are only synthesized under certain conditions.

 

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