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nail (nal)

1. One of the thin, horny, translucent plates covering the dorsal surface of the distal end of each terminal phalanx of fingers and toes. A nail consists of corpus or body, the visible part, and radix or root at the proximal end concealed under a fold of skin. The under part of the nail is formed from the stratum germinativum of the epidermis, the free surface from the stratum lucidum, the thin cuticular fold overlapping the lunula representing the stratum corneum. 2. A slender rod of metal, bone, or other solid substance, used in operations to fasten together the divided extremities of a broken bone.unguis [NA], nail plate, onyx; [A.S. naegel]
egg shell n. hapalonychia
half and half n. division of the n. by a transverse line into a proximal dull white part and a distal pink or brown part; seen in uremia.
hippocratic n.'s the coarse curved n.'s capping clubbed digits (hippocratic fingers).
ingrown n. a toenail, one edge of which is overgrown by the nailfold, producing a pyogenic granuloma; due to faulty trimming of the toenails or pressure from a tight shoe.ingrowing toenail, onychocryptosis, onyxis, unguis aduncus, unguis incarnatus;
Küntscher n. an intramedullary n. used for internal fixation of a fracture.
parrot-beak n. a markedly curved fingernail.
pincer n. transverse overcurvature of the n. that increases distally, causing the lateral borders of the n. to pinch the soft tissue with resulting tenderness; may result from a developmental anomaly or subungual exostosis.
racket n. a broad flat thumbnail resulting from a congenital shorter and wider distal phalanx of the thumb.
reedy n. a n. marked by longitudinal ridges and furrows.
shell n. bronchiectasis with excessive longitudinal curvature of the nail plate and atrophy of the nail bed and underlying bone.
Smith-Petersen n. a flanged n. for pinning a fracture of the neck of the femur.
spoon n. koilonychia
Terry's n.'s a white, ground-glass-like opacity of the n.'s with a zone of normal pink at the distal edge of the n.'s; associated with liver disease (most commonly, cirrhosis of the liver).
yellow n. the complete or almost complete cessation of all n. growth, with thickening of the n.'s, increase in the convexity, loss of cuticles, and yellowing; the resulting onycholysis can cause loss of some of the n.'s; the condition is often associated with pulmonary disease but differs from clubbing in that the soft tissues are not hypertrophic.yellow nail syndrome;


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