nerve

nerve (nerv)

A whitish cordlike structure composed of one or more bundles (fascicles) of myelinated or unmyelinated n. fibers, or more often mixtures of both, coursing outside of the central nervous system, together with connective tissue within the fascicle and around the neurolemma of individual n. fibers (endoneurium), around each fascicle (perineurium), and around the entire n. and its nourishing blood vessels (epineurium), by which stimuli are transmitted from the central nervous system to a part of the body or the reverse. Nerve branches are given in the definition of the major nerve; many are also listed and defined under branch.nervus [NA]; [L. nervus]
abdominopelvic splanchnic n.'s visceral branches of the sympathetic trunks conveying presynaptic sympathetic fibers to and visceral afferent fibers from the prevertebral ganglia and para-aortic/hypogastric plexuses for the innervation of viscera located below the diaphragm. The greater, lesser, lowest, lumbar, and sacral splanchnic n.'s belong to this group.
abducent n. a small motor nerve supplying the lateral rectus muscle of the eye; its origin is in the dorsal part of the tegmentum of the pons just below the surface of the rhomboid fossa, and it emerges from the brain in the fissure between the medulla oblongata and the posterior border of the pons; it enters the dura of the clivus and passes through the cavernous sinus, entering the orbit through the superior orbital fissure.nervus abducens [NA], abducent (2), sixth cranial n;
accelerator n.'s certain of the cardiopulmonary splanchnic n.'s establishing the sympathetic innervation of the heart; originating from ganglion cells of the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, the unmyelinated efferent fibers of the accelerator n.'s stimulate an increase in the heart rate.
accessory n. arises by two sets of roots: cranial, emerging from the side of the medulla, and spinal, emerging from the ventrolateral part of the first five cervical segments of the spinal cord; these roots unite to form the accessory nerve trunk, which divides into two branches, internal and external; the internal branch, carrying fibers of the cranial root, unites with the vagus in the jugular foramen and supplies the muscles of the pharynx, larynx, and soft palate; the external branch continues independently through the jugular foramen to supply the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles.nervus accessorius [NA], accessorius willisii, eleventh cranial n., spinal accessory n;
accessory phrenic n.'s accessory nerve strands that arise from the fifth cervical nerve, often as branches of the nerve to the subclavius, passing downward to join the phrenic nerve.nervi phrenici accessorii [NA];
acoustic n. an archaic term sometimes used to designate the vestibulocochlear n.
afferent n. a n. conveying impulses from the periphery to the central nervous system.centripetal n., esodic n;
Andersch's n. tympanic n
anococcygeal n.'s several small nerves arising from the coccygeal plexus, supplying the skin over the coccyx.nervi anococcygei [NA];
anterior ampullar n. a branch of the utriculoampullar nerve that supplies the crista ampullaris of the anterior semicircular duct.nervus ampullaris anterior [NA];
anterior antebrachial n. anterior interosseous n
anterior auricular n.'s branches of the auriculotemporal nerve that supply the tragus and upper part of the auricle.nervi auriculares anteriores [NA];
anterior crural n. femoral n
anterior cutaneous n.'s of abdomen thoracoabdominal n.'s
anterior ethmoidal n. a branch of the nasociliary nerve; passes through anterior ethmoidal foramen on superomedial wall of orbit into cranial cavity, giving rise to anterior meningeal n.'s, then passes through cribriform plates into nasal cavity, supplying anterosuperior nasal mucosa.nervus ethmoidalis anterior [NA];
anterior femoral cutaneous n.'s anterior cutaneous branches of femoral nerve; supplies distal 3/4 of skin and superficial fascia of anterior and medial thigh.rami cutanei anteriores nervi femoralis [NA];
anterior interosseous n. a branch of the median arising in elbow region, running on interosseous membrane, supplying the flexor pollicis longus, part of flexor digitorum profundus and the pronator quadratus muscles, as well as radiocarpal and intercarpal joints.nervus interosseus anterior [NA], ramus profundus nervi radialis [NA], nervus antebrachii anterior [NA], anterior antebrachial n., volar interosseous n;
anterior labial n.'s branches of the ilioinguinal nerve distributed to the labia majora, mons pubis and adjacent thigh.nervi labiales anteriores [NA];
anterior scrotal n.'s the branches of the ilioinguinal nerve, distributed to the skin of the root of the penis, mons pubis, adjacent thigh and the anterior surface of the scrotum.nervi scrotales anteriores [NA];
anterior supraclavicular n. medial supraclavicular n
anterior tibial n. deep peroneal n
aortic n. a branch of the vagus which ends in the aortic arch and base of the heart; composed entirely of afferent fibers; its stimulation elicits a brainstem reflex which causes slowing of the heart, dilation of the peripheral vessels, and a fall in blood pressure.Cyon's n., depressor n. of Ludwig, Ludwig's n;
Arnold's n. auricular branch of vagus nerve
articular n. a branch of a nerve supplying a joint.nervus articularis [NA];
auditory n. cochlear n
augmentor n.'s cervical splanchnic n.'s
auriculotemporal n. a branch of the mandibular, usually arising by two roots embracing the middle meningeal artery; it passes through the parotid gland conveying post-synaptic parasympathetic secretomotor fibers from the otic ganglion, and continuing to terminate in the skin of the temple and scalp; also sends branches to the external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane, and auricle as well as a communicating branch to the facial nerve.nervus auriculotemporalis [NA];
autonomic n. a bundle of nerve fibers outside of the central nervous system belonging or relating to the autonomic nervous system.
axillary n. arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus in the axilla, passes laterally and posteriorly through quadrangular space with the posterior circumflex artery, winding round the surgical neck of the humerus to supply the deltoid and teres minor muscles, terminating as the superior lateral brachial cutaneous n.nervus axillaris [NA], circumflex n;
baroreceptor n. pressoreceptor n
Bell's respiratory n. long thoracic n
Bock's n. pharyngeal branch of pterygopalatine ganglion
buccal n. a sensory branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve; it passes downward emerging from beneath the ramus of the mandible to run forward on the buccinator muscle, piercing (but not supplying) it to supply the buccal mucous membrane and skin of the cheek near the angle of the mouth.nervus buccalis [NA], buccinator n., long buccal n;
buccinator n. buccal n
cardiopulmonary splanchnic n.'s visceral branches of the sympathetic trunks conveying postsynaptic sympathetic fibers to and visceral afferent fibers from viscera located above the diaphragm, mainly via the cardiac, pulmonary, and esophageal plexuses. The cervical and upper thoracic splanchnic n.'s are part of this group.
caroticotympanic n. one of two sympathetic branches from the internal carotid plexus to the tympanic plexus.nervus caroticotympanicus [NA], small deep petrosal n;
carotid sinus n. a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve that innervates the baroreceptors in the wall of the carotid sinus and the chemoreceptors in the carotid body.ramus sinus carotici [NA], carotid sinus branch, Hering's sinus n., intercarotid n., n. to carotid sinus, sinus n. of Hering;
n. to carotid sinus carotid sinus n
cavernous n.'s of clitoris n.'s corresponding to the cavernous n.'s of penis in the male, arising from the vesicular portion of the pelvic plexus.nervi cavernosi clitoridis [NA], cavernous plexus of clitoris;
cavernous n.'s of penis two nerves, major and minor, derived from the prostatic portion of the pelvic plexus supplying sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers to the helicine arteries and arteriorvenous anastomoses of the corpus cavernosum stimulating erection.nervi cavernosi penis [NA], cavernous plexus of penis;
centrifugal n. efferent n
centripetal n. afferent n
cervical n.'s nerves arising from the cervical segments of the spinal cord.nervi cervicales [NA];
cervical splanchnic n.'s segments of the visceral branches arising from the superior, middle, and inferior (stellate) cervical ganglia; they are part of the cardiopulmonary splanchnic n.'s.augmentor n.'s;
circumflex n. axillary n
coccygeal n. a small nerve, the lowest of the spinal nerves, entering into the formation of the coccygeal plexus.nervus coccygeus [NA];
cochlear n. the part of the vestibulocochlear nerve peripheral to the cochlear root it is composed of the central nerve processes of which the bipolar neurons of the spiral ganglion, which have their peripheral processes on the four rows of neuroepithelial cells (hair cells) of the spiral organ. See also cochlear root of VIII nerve.nervus cochlearis [NA], pars cochlearis nervi vestibulocochlearis [NA], auditory n., cochlear part of vestibulocochlear nerve, inferior part of vestibulocochlear nerve;
common fibular n. common peroneal n
common palmar digital n.'s four nerves in the palm that send branches (proper palmar digital nerves) to adjacent sides of two digits; three are branches of the median, one is from the ulnar.nervi digitales palmares communes [NA];
common peroneal n. one of the terminal divisions of the sciatic nerve, diverging from the tibial n. at the upper end of the popliteal fossa, then coursing with the biceps tendon along the lateral portion of the popliteal space to wind around the neck of the fibula where it divides into the superficial and deep peroneal nerves. The common peroneal n., or its deep branch, is the most commonly injured n., being located in a lateral subcutaneous position at the fibular neck; a lesion causes a loss of ability to dorsiflex the foot ("foot drop").nervus fibularis communis [NA], nervus peroneus communis [NA], common fibular n., lateral popliteal n;
common plantar digital n.'s three nerves derived from the medial plantar and one from the lateral plantar that supply the skin overlying the metatarsals and terminate as proper plantar digital nerves to the side of each toe.nervi digitales plantares communes [NA];
cranial n.'s those nerves that emerge from, or enter, the cranium or skull, in contrast to the spinal nerves, which emerge from the spine or vertebral column. The twelve paired cranial nerves are the olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducent, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagal, accessory, and hypoglossal n.'s.nervi craniales [NA];
crural interosseous n. a nerve given off from one of the muscular branches of the tibial nerve which passes down over the posterior surface of the interosseous membrane supplying it and the two bones of the leg.nervus interosseus cruris [NA], interosseous n. of leg;
cubital n. ulnar n
cutaneous n. a mixed nerve supplying a region of the skin, including its sensory endings, blood vessels, smooth muscle and glands.nervus cutaneus [NA];
cutaneous cervical n. transverse cervical n
Cyon's n. aortic n
dead n. misnomer for nonvital dental pulp.
deep fibular n. deep peroneal n
deep peroneal n. one of the terminal branches of the common peroneal nerve, arising at the fibular neck and passing into the anterior compartment of the leg; it supplies the tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, and peroneus tertius muscles in the leg, then crosses the ankle joint to supply the muscles on the dorsum of the foot (extensors hallucis and digitorum brevis) becoming cutaneous to innervate adjacent sides of the great and second toes.nervus fibularis profundus [NA], nervus peroneus profundus [NA], anterior tibial n., deep fibular n;
deep petrosal n. the deep petrosal branch of the internal carotid plexus, which joins the greater petrosal nerve at the entrance of the pterygoid canal to provide postsynaptic fibers to nerve of the pterygoid canal.nervus petrosus profundus [NA];
deep temporal n.'s two branches, anterior and posterior, from the mandibular nerve, supplying the temporalis muscle and periosteum of the temporal fossa.nervi temporales profundi [NA];
dental n. 1. layperson's term for a dental pulp; 2. branches of the inferior and superior alveolar n.'s to the teeth. See inferior alveolar n., superior alveolar n.'s.
depressor n. of Ludwig aortic n
dorsal n. of clitoris the deep terminal branch of the pudendal, supplying especially the glans clitoridis after passing through the musculature of the urogenital diaphragm, to run along the dorsum of the clitoral shaft.nervus dorsalis clitoridis [NA];
dorsal digital n.'s dorsal digital n.'s of hand
dorsal digital n.'s of foot nerves supplying the skin of the dorsal aspect of the proximal and middle phalanges of the toes.nervi digitales dorsales pedis [NA], dorsal n.'s of toes;
dorsal digital n.'s of hand terminal branches of the radial and ulnar nerves in the hand supplying the skin of the dorsal surface of the proximal and middle phalanges of the fingers.nervi digitales dorsales [NA], dorsal digital n.'s;
dorsal interosseous n. posterior interosseous n
dorsal lateral cutaneous n. lateral dorsal cutaneous n
dorsal medial cutaneous n. medial dorsal cutaneous n
dorsal n. of penis the deep terminal branch of the pudendal which runs through the urogenital diaphragm giving branches, then runs along the dorsum of the penis, supplying the skin of the penis, the prepuce, the corpora cavernosa, and the glans.nervus dorsalis penis [NA];
dorsal n. of scapula dorsal scapular n
dorsal scapular n. arises from ventral primary rami of the fifth to seventh cervical nerves and passes downward to supply the levator scapulae and the rhomboideus major and minor muscles.nervus dorsalis scapulae [NA], dorsal n. of scapula, n. to rhomboid, posterior scapular n;
dorsal n.'s of toes dorsal digital n.'s of foot
efferent n. a n. conveying impulses from the central nervous system to the periphery.centrifugal n., exodic n;
eighth n. vestibulocochlear n
eighth cranial n. vestibulocochlear n
eleventh cranial n. accessory n
esodic n. afferent n
excitor n. a n. conducting impulses that stimulate to increase function.
excitoreflex n. a visceral n. the special function of which is to cause reflex action.
exodic n. efferent n
n. of external acoustic meatus a branch of the auriculotemporal nerve supplying the lining of the external acoustic meatus.nervus meatus acustici externi [NA];
external carotid n.'s a number of sympathetic nerve fibers conveyed via the cephalic arterial ramus of the sympathetic trunk which extends from the superior cervical ganglion to the external carotid artery, forming the external carotid plexus.nervi carotici externi [NA];
external respiratory n. of Bell long thoracic n
external saphenous n. sural n
external spermatic n. genital branch of genitofemoral nerve
facial n. its origin is in the tegmentum of the lower portion of the pons, and it emerges from the brain at the posterior border of the pons; it leaves the cranial cavity through the internal acoustic meatus where it is joined by the intermediate n., traverses the facial canal in the petrous portion of the temporal bone, and makes its exit through the stylomastoid foramen; it passes through the parotid gland forming the intraparotid plexus, the various branches of which pass to the muscles of facial expression.nervus facialis [NA], motor n. of face, seventh cranial n;
femoral n. arises from the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves in the substance of the psoas muscle and enters the thigh via the muscular lacuna beneath the inguinal ligament, lateral to the femoral vessels; it arborizes within the femoral triangle into muscle branches to the sartorius, pectineus and quadriceps muscles and anterior femoral cutaneous n.'s to the skin of the anterior and medial region of the thigh; its terminal branch is the saphenous n. by which it supplies the skin of the medial leg and foot anterior region of the thigh.nervus femoralis [NA], anterior crural n;
fifth cranial n. trigeminal n
first cranial n. olfactory n.'s
fourth cranial n. trochlear n
fourth lumbar n. the ventral branch of the n. is forked to enter into the formation of both lumbar and sacral plexuses.furcal n., nervus furcalis;
frontal n. a branch of the ophthalmic nerve which divides within the orbit into the supratrochlear and the supraorbital nerves.nervus frontalis [NA];
furcal n. fourth lumbar n
Galen's n. communicating branch of superior laryngeal nerve with recurrent laryngeal nerve
gangliated n. a sympathetic n.
genitocrural n. genitofemoral n
genitofemoral n. arises from the first and second lumbar nerves, passes distad along the anterior surface of psoas major muscle and divides into genital and femoral branches.nervus genitofemoralis [NA], genitocrural n;
glossopharyngeal n. it emerges from the rostral end of the medulla and passes through the jugular foramen to supply sensation to the pharynx and posterior third of the tongue; it also carries somatic motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle and presynaptic parasympathetic fibers to the otic ganglion.nervus glossopharyngeus [NA], ninth cranial n;
great auricular n. arises from the ventral primary rami of the second and third cervical, spinal nerves, supplies the skin of part of the auricle, adjacent portion of the scalp, and that overlying the angle of the jaw; it also innervates the parotid sheath, conveying from it the pain fibers stimulated by stretching of the sheath during parotitis (mumps).nervus auricularis magnus [NA];
greater occipital n. medial branch of the dorsal primary ramus of the second cervical nerve; sends branches to the semispinalis capitis and multifidus cervicis, but is mainly cutaneous, supplying the back part of the scalp.nervus occipitalis major [NA];
greater palatine n. a branch of the pterygopalatine ganglion that passes downward through the greater palatine canal to supply the mucosa and glands of the hard palate, and the anterior part of the soft palate.nervus palatinus major [NA];
greater petrosal n. greater superficial petrosal n
greater splanchnic n. uppermost of the abdominopelvic splanchnic which arises from the fifth or sixth to the ninth or tenth thoracic sympathetic ganglia in the thorax and passes downward along the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae, penetrating the diaphragm to join the celiac plexus; conveys presynaptic sympathetic fibers to the celiac ganglia, and visceral afferent fibers from the celiac plexus.nervus splanchnicus major [NA];
greater superficial petrosal n. the parasympathetic root of the pterygopalatine ganglion; a branch from the genu of the facial nerve exiting via the hiatus of the facial canal and running in a groove on the anterior surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone beside the foramen lacerum to join the deep petrosal n., thus forming the n. of the pterygoid canal, which passes through the pterygoid canal to reach the pterygopalatine ganglion.nervus petrosus major [NA], greater petrosal n;
great sciatic n. sciatic n
hemorrhoidal n.'s See superior rectal plexus, middle rectal plexuses, under plexus, inferior rectal n.'s.
Hering's sinus n. carotid sinus n
hypogastric n. one of the two nerve trunks (right and left) which lead from the superior hypogastric plexus into the pelvis to join the inferior hypogastric plexuses.nervus hypogastricus [NA];
hypoglossal n. arises from an oblong nucleus in the medulla and emerges by several root filaments between the pyramid and the olive; it passes through the hypoglossal canal, then courses downward and forward to supply the intrinsic and four of five extrinsic muscles of the tongue.nervus hypoglossus [NA], twelfth cranial n;
iliohypogastric n. arises from the first lumbar nerve; it supplies the abdominal muscles and the skin of the lower part of the anterior abdominal wall.nervus iliohypogastricus [NA];
ilioinguinal n. arises from the first lumbar nerve, passes through the inguinal canal and superficial inguinal ring to supply the skin of the upper medial thigh, mons pubis, and scrotum or labia majora.nervus ilioinguinalis [NA];
inferior alveolar n. one of the terminal branches of the mandibular, it enters the mandibular canal to be distributed to the lower teeth, periosteum, and gingiva of the mandible; a branch, the mental nerve, passes through the mental foramen to supply the skin and mucosa of the lower lip and chin.nervus alveolaris inferior [NA], inferior dental n;
inferior cervical cardiac n. a nerve passing from the stellate ganglion to the cardiac plexus.nervus cardiacus cervicalis inferior [NA];
inferior cluneal n.'s branches of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve emerging from beneath the inferior border of the gluteus maximus to supply the skin of the lower half of the gluteal region.nervi clunium inferiores [NA];
inferior dental n. inferior alveolar n
inferior gluteal n. arises from the fifth lumbar and first and second sacral nerves, and supplies the gluteus maximus muscle. It is subject to injury by compression and ischemia in sedentary individuals, resulting in difficulty in rising from a sitting position and difficulty climbing stairs.nervus gluteus inferior [NA];
inferior hemorrhoidal n.'s inferior rectal n.'s
inferior laryngeal n. the terminal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve; it supplies the laryngeal mucosa inferior to the vocal folds and all laryngeal muscles except the cricothyroid.nervus laryngeus inferior [NA];
inferior lateral brachial cutaneous n. a branch of the radial nerve supplying the skin of the lower lateral aspect of the arm; it frequently is a branch of the posterior antebrachial nerve.nervus cutaneus brachii lateralis inferior [NA], lower lateral cutaneous n. of arm;
inferior maxillary n. mandibular n
inferior rectal n.'s several branches of the pudendal nerve that pass to the external and sphincter anoderm and skin of the anal region.nervi rectales inferiores [NA], inferior hemorrhoidal n.'s;
inferior vesical n.'s several small n.'s once considered to pass from the pudendal plexus to the bladder. (obsolete)
infraorbital n. the continuation of the maxillary nerve after it has entered the orbit, via the infraorbital fissure, traversing the infraorbital canal to reach the face; it supplies the mucosa of the maxillary sinus, the upper incisors, canine and premolars, the upper gums, the inferior eyelid and conjunctiva, part of the nose and the superior lip.nervus infraorbitalis [NA];
infratrochlear n. a terminal branch of the nasociliary nerve running beneath the pulley of the superior oblique muscle to the front of the orbit, and supplying the skin of the eyelids and root of the nose.nervus infratrochlearis [NA];
inhibitory n. a n. conveying impulses that diminish functional activity in a part.
intercarotid n. carotid sinus n
intercostal n.'s ventral primary rami of the thoracic nerves.nervi intercostales [NA];
intercostobrachial n.'s lateral cutaneous branches of the second and third intercostal nerves which pass to the skin of the medial side of the arm.nervi intercostobrachiales [NA], intercostohumeral n.'s;
intercostohumeral n.'s intercostobrachial n.'s
intermediary n. nervus intermedius
intermediate n. nervus intermedius
intermediate dorsal cutaneous n. the lateral terminal branch of the superficial peroneal nerve, supplying the dorsum of the foot and dorsal nerves to the toes (except for adjacent parts of great and second toes).nervus cutaneus dorsalis intermedius [NA];
intermediate supraclavicular n. one of several nerves arising from the C-3-C-4 part of the cervical plexus which run across the top of the shoulder and pass down across the clavicle to supply the skin of the top of the shoulder and in the infraclavicular region.nervus supraclavicularis intermedius [NA], middle supraclavicular n;
internal carotid n. the cephalic arterial ramus conveying postsynaptic sympathetic fibers from the superior cervical ganglion to the internal carotid artery to form the internal carotid plexus.nervus caroticus internus [NA];
internal saphenous n. saphenous n
interosseous n. of leg crural interosseous n
Jacobson's n. tympanic n
jugular n. a communicating branch between the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic nerve, the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve, and the inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve.nervus jugularis [NA];
lacrimal n. a branch of the ophthalmic nerve supplying sensory fibers to the lateral part of the upper eyelid, conjunctiva, and lacrimal gland. The secretomotor fibers of the latter were conveyed to the lacrimal n. by the communicating branch of the zygomatic n. (a branch of the maxillary n.).nervus lacrimalis [NA];
Latarget's n. 1. superior hypogastric plexus 2. terminal branch of anterior vagal trunk which runs along lesser curvature of the stomach to within a few centimeters of the gastroduodenal junction, but apparently never reaching the pyloric sphincter.
lateral ampullar n. a branch of the utriculoampullar nerve that supplies the crista ampullaris of the lateral semicircular duct.nervus ampullaris lateralis [NA];
lateral antebrachial cutaneous n. the terminal cutaneous branch of the musculocutaneous nerve that emerges between bicips brachii and brachialis muscles to supply the skin of the radial side of the forearm.nervus cutaneus antebrachii lateralis [NA], lateral cutaneous n. of forearm;
lateral anterior thoracic n. lateral pectoral n
lateral cutaneous n. of calf lateral sural cutaneous n
lateral cutaneous n. of forearm lateral antebrachial cutaneous n
lateral cutaneous n. of thigh lateral femoral cutaneous n
lateral dorsal cutaneous n. the continuation of the sural nerve in the foot, supplying the lateral margin and dorsum.nervus cutaneus dorsalis lateralis [NA], dorsal lateral cutaneous n;
lateral femoral cutaneous n. arises from the second and third lumbar nerves, supplies the skin of the anterolateral and lateral surfaces of the thigh.nervus cutaneus femoris lateralis [NA], lateral cutaneous n. of thigh;
lateral pectoral n. a nerve that arises from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus usually passing medial to pectoralis minor to supply the sternoclavicular head of pectoralis major.nervus pectoralis lateralis [NA], lateral anterior thoracic n;
lateral plantar n. one of the two terminal branches of the tibial nerve; it courses along the lateral side of the sole, dividing into superficial and deep branches; it supplies the skin of the lateral aspect of the sole and the lateral one and one-half toes; it innervates the intrinsic muscles of the plantar part of the foot with the exception of the abductor hallucis and the flexor digitorum brevis; its distribution in the foot is very similar to that of the ulnar n. in the hand.nervus plantaris lateralis [NA];
lateral popliteal n. common peroneal n
lateral supraclavicular n. one of several branches of the C-3-C-4 portion of the cervical plexus which descend to the skin over the acromion and deltoid region.nervus supraclavicularis lateralis [NA], posterior supraclavicular n;
lateral sural cutaneous n. it arises from the common peroneal in the popliteal space and is distributed to the skin of the inferolateral surface of the calf.nervus cutaneus surae lateralis [NA], lateral cutaneous n. of calf;
lesser internal cutaneous n. medial brachial cutaneous n
lesser occipital n. arises from the ventral primary rami of the second and third cervical nerves; supplies the skin of the posterior surface of the auricle and the adjacent portion of the scalp. posterior to the auricle.nervus occipitalis minor [NA];
lesser palatine n.'s usually two, these nerves emerge through the lesser palatine foramina and supply the mucosa and glands of the soft palate and uvula; they are branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion and contain postsynaptic parasympathetic and sensory fibers of the maxillary n.nervi palatini minores [NA];
lesser petrosal n. lesser superficial petrosal n
lesser splanchnic n. one of the abdominopelvic splanchnic n.'s arising in the thorax from the last two thoracic sympathetic ganglia and passing through the diaphragm to the aorticorenal ganglion; conveys presynaptic sympathetic fibers and visceral afferent fibers.nervus splanchnicus minor [NA];
lesser superficial petrosal n. the parasympathetic root of the otic ganglion, derived from the tympanic plexus; it leaves the tympanic cavity through the canal for the lesser petrosal nerve and passes within the cranium to the sphenopetrosal fissure, or to the foramen ovale, or to the petrosal foramen through which it descends to reach the otic ganglion; conveys presynaptic parasympathetic fibers from the glossopharyngeal nerve concerned with secretomotor innervation of the perotid gland.nervus petrosus minor [NA], lesser petrosal n;
lingual n. one of the branches of the mandibular nerve, passing medial to the lateral pterygoid muscle, between the medial pterygoid and the mandible, and beneath the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth to the side of the tongue over the anterior two-thirds of which it is distributed: it supplies also the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth. It passes close to the lingual side of the roots of the second and third lower molar teeth and is endangered during tooth extractions.nervus lingualis [NA];
long buccal n. buccal n
long ciliary n. one of two or three branches of the nasociliary nerve, which by-pass the ciliary ganglion, supplying post-synaptic sympathetic fibers for the dilator pupillae muscle and sensory fibers for the ciliary muscles, iris, and cornea.nervus ciliaris longus [NA];
long saphenous n. saphenous n
long subscapular n. thoracodorsal n
long thoracic n. arises from the fifth, sixth, and seventh cervical nerves (roots of brachial plexus), descends the neck behind the brachial plexus, and is distributed to the serratus anterior muscle; it is somewhat unusual in that it courses on the superficial aspect of the muscle is supplies; its paralysis results in "winged scapula".nervus thoracicus longus [NA], Bell's respiratory n., external respiratory n. of Bell, posterior thoracic n;
lower lateral cutaneous n. of arm inferior lateral brachial cutaneous n
lowest splanchnic n. one of the abdominopelvic splanchnic n.'s arising in the thorax and penetrating the diaphragm to supply presynaptic sympathetic fibers for the renal plexus; often combined with the lesser splanchnic nerve, but occasionally existing as an independent nerve.nervus splanchnicus imus [NA], smallest splanchnic n;
Ludwig's n. aortic n
lumbar n.'s five bilaterally-paired nerves emerging from the lumbar portion of the spinal cord; the first four nerves enter into the formation of the lumbar plexus, the fourth and fifth into that of the sacral plexus.nervi lumbales [NA];
lumbar splanchnic n.'s branches from the lumbar sympathetic trunks that pass anteriorly to convey presynaptic sympathetic fibers to, and visceral afferents from, the celiac, intermesenteric, aortic, and superior hypogastric plexuses.nervi splanchnici lumbales [NA];
lumboinguinal n. femoral branch of genitofemoral n. See genitofemoral n.
mandibular n. the third division of the trigeminal nerve formed by the union of sensory fibers from the trigeminal ganglion and the motor root in the foramen ovale, through which the nerve emerges; its branches are: meningeal, masseteric, deep temporal, lateral and medial pterygoid, buccal, auriculotemporal, lingual, and inferior alveolar; its sensory fibers are distributed to the auricle, external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane, temporal region, cheek, skin overlying the mandible (except its angle); anterior 2/3 of tongue, floor of mouth, lower teeth and gingiva; its motor fibers innervate all the muscles of mastication plus the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digestive and the tensores veli palati and tympani.nervus mandibularis [NA], inferior maxillary n;
masseteric n. a muscular branch of the mandibular nerve passing through the mandibular notch to the medial surface of the masseter muscle which it supplies and the temporomandibular joint.nervus massetericus [NA];
masticator n. motor root of trigeminal nerve
maxillary n. the second division of the trigeminal nerve, passing from the trigeminal ganglion through the foramen rotundum into the pterygopalatine fossa, where it gives off ganglionic branches to the pterygopalatine ganglion and continues forward to give off the zygomatic nerve and enter the orbit, where it is named the infraorbital nerve. Its sensory fibers are distributed to the skin and conjunctiva of the lower eyelid, the skin and mucosa of the upper lip and cheek, the palate, upper teeth and gingiva, the maxillary sinus, wings of the nose and posterior/interior nasal cavity.nervus maxillaris [NA], superior maxillary n;
medial antebrachial cutaneous n. arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus, passes downward in company with the brachial artery and then the basilic vein, and supplies the skin of the anterior and ulnar surfaces of the forearm.nervus cutaneus antebrachii medialis [NA], medial cutaneous n. of forearm;
medial anterior thoracic n. medial pectoral n
medial brachial cutaneous n. arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus, unites in the axilla with the lateral cutaneous branch of the second intercostal nerve, and supplies the skin of the medial side of the arm.nervus cutaneus brachii medialis [NA], lesser internal cutaneous n., medial cutaneous n. of arm, Wrisberg's n. (1);
medial cutaneous n. of arm medial brachial cutaneous n
medial cutaneous n. of forearm medial antebrachial cutaneous n
medial cutaneous n. of leg medial sural cutaneous n
medial dorsal cutaneous n. the medial terminal branch of the superficial peroneal nerve, supplying the dorsum of the foot and dorsal nerves to the toes (except adjacent sides of great and second toes).nervus cutaneus dorsalis medialis [NA], dorsal medial cutaneous n;
medial pectoral n. a nerve that arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus to supply the pectoral muscles; usually pierces pectoralis minor, then continues to supply mainly the sternocostal portion of pectoralis major.nervus pectoralis medialis [NA], medial anterior thoracic n;
medial plantar n. one of the two terminal branches of the tibial nerve; it courses along the medial aspect of the sole to supply the abductor hallucis and flexor digitorum brevis and, by way of common and proper digital branches, to innervate the skin of the medial part of the foot and medial three and one-half toes.nervus plantaris medialis [NA];
medial popliteal n. tibial n
medial supraclavicular n. one of several nerves arising from the cervical plexus which supply the skin over the upper medial part of the thorax.nervus supraclavicularis medialis [NA], anterior supraclavicular n;
medial sural cutaneous n. arises from the tibial in the popliteal space, passes down the calf between the two heads of the gastrocnemius and unites in the middle of the leg with the communicating branch of the common peroneal to form the sural nerve, distributed to the skin of the distal and lateral surfaces of the leg and ankle.nervus cutaneus surae medialis [NA], medial cutaneous n. of leg, popliteal communicating n., tibial communicating n;
median n. formed by the union of medial and lateral roots from the medial and lateral cords of the brachial plexus, respectively; it supplies all the muscles in the anterior compartment of the forearm with the exception of the flexor carpi ulnaris and ulnar half of the flexor digitorum profundus; it passes through the carpal tunnel to supply the thenar muscles (except adductor pollicis and the deep head of flexor pollicis brevis) via its recurrent thenar branch; its sensory fibers are distributed to the skin of the palmar and distal dorsal aspects of the radial 3 1/2 digits and adjacent palm. The median n. is most commonly injured through compression in carpal tunnel syndrome, resulting in a loss of ability to oppose the thumb ("ape hand") and loss of sensation over the radial portion of the hand.nervus medianus [NA];
mental n. a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve, arising in the mandibular canal and passing through the mental foramen to the chin and lower lip.nervus mentalis [NA];
middle cervical cardiac n. one of the cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves conveying postsynaptic sympathetic fibers running downward, from the middle cervical ganglion along the subclavian artery (on the left) or the brachiocephalic (on the right side) to join the cardiac plexus.nervus cardiacus cervicalis medius [NA];
middle cluneal n.'s terminal branches of the dorsal primary rami of the sacral nerves, supplying the skin of the mid-gluteal region.nervi clunium medii [NA];
middle meningeal n. middle meningeal branch of maxillary nerve
middle supraclavicular n. intermediate supraclavicular n
mixed n. a n. containing both afferent and efferent fibers.
motor n. an efferent n. conveying an impulse that excites muscular contraction; motor n.'s in the autonomic nervous system also elicit secretions from glandular epithelia.
motor n. of face facial n
musculocutaneous n. arises from lateral cord of the brachial plexus, passes through the coracobrachialis muscle, and then downward between the brachialis and biceps, supplying these three muscles and being prolonged as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm.nervus musculocutaneus [NA];
musculocutaneous n. of leg superficial peroneal n
musculospiral n. radial n
myelinated n. a peripheral nerve whose axons are surrounded by layers of Schwann cell membranes that form the myelin sheath; also called medullated n.'s.
mylohyoid n. a small branch of the inferior alveolar nerve given off posteriorly just before the nerve enters the mandibular foramen, distributed to the anterior belly of the digastric muscle and to the mylohyoid muscle.nervus mylohyoideus [NA], n. to mylohyoid;
n. to mylohyoid mylohyoid n
nasal n. nasociliary n
nasociliary n. a branch of the ophthalmic nerve in the superior orbital fissure, passing through the orbit, giving rise to the communicating branch to the ciliary ganglion, the long ciliary nerves, the posterior and anterior ethmoidal nerves, and terminating as the infratrochlear and nasal branches, which supply the mucous membrane of the nose, the skin of the tip of the nose, and the conjunctiva.nervus nasociliaris [NA], nasal n;
nasopalatine n. a branch from the pterygopalatine ganglion, passing through the sphenopalatine foramen, crossing to and then down the nasal septum, and through the incisive foramen to supply the mucous membrane of the hard palate.nervus nasopalatinus [NA];
ninth cranial n. glossopharyngeal n
obturator n. arises from the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves in the psoas muscle, crosses the brim of the pelvis, and enters the thigh through the obturator canal; it supplies muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh (adductors of thigh at the hip joint) and terminates as the cutaneous branch of the obturator n., supplying a small area of medial thigh above knee.nervus obturatorius [NA];
oculomotor n. it supplies all the extrinsic muscles of the eye, except the lateral rectus and superior oblique; it also supplies the levator palpebrae superioris, and conveys presynaptic parasympathetic fibers to the ciliary ganglion for innervation of the ciliary muscle and sphincter pupillae; its origin is in the midbrain below the cerebral aqueduct; it emerges from the brain in the interpeduncular fossa, pierces the dura mater to the side of the posterior clinoid process, passes in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus and enters the orbit through the superior orbital fissure.nervus oculomotorius [NA], motor oculi, oculomotorius, third cranial n;
olfactory n.'s collective term denoting the numerous olfactory filaments: slender fascicles each composed of the thin, unmyelinated axons of 8 to 12 of the bipolar olfactory receptor cells in the olfactory portion of the nasal mucosa; the olfactory filaments pass through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and enter the olfactory bulb, where they terminate in synaptic contact with mitral cells, tufted cells, and granule cells. See also olfactory tract.nervi olfactorii [NA], fila olfactoria, first cranial n., n. of smell, olfactory fila;
ophthalmic n. a branch of the trigeminal nerve that passes forward from the trigeminal ganglion in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, entering the orbit through the superior orbital fissure; through its branches, frontal, lacrimal, and nasociliary, it supplies sensation to the orbit and its contents, the anterior part of the nasal cavity, and the skin of the nose and forehead.nervus ophthalmicus [NA];
optic n. originating from the ganglion cells of the retina, it passes out of the orbit through the optic canal to the chiasm, where part of the fibers cross to the opposite side and pass through the optic tract to the geniculate bodies, superior colliculus, and the pretectum.nervus opticus [NA], second cranial n;
orbital n. zygomatic n
parasympathetic n. one of the n.'s of the parasympathetic nervous system.
pathetic n. trochlear n
pelvic splanchnic n.'s visceral branches from the ventral primary rami of the second, third, and fourth sacral spinal nerves that join the inferior hypogastric plexus, to form the pelvic plexuses to and from which they convey presynaptic parasympathetic and sensory fibers, respectively.nervi pelvici splanchnici [NA], nervi erigentes [NA];
perineal n.'s the superficial terminal branches of the pudendal nerve, supplying most of the muscles of the perineum (deep branch) as well as the skin of that region (superficial branch).nervi perineales [NA];
peroneal communicating n. peroneal communicating branch
phrenic n. arises from the cervical plexus, chiefly from the fourth cervical nerve, passes downward in front of the anterior scalene muscle and enters the thorax between the subclavian artery and vein behind the sternoclavicular articulation; it then passes in front of the root of the lung to the diaphragm; it is mainly the motor nerve of the diaphragm but sends sensory fibers to the mediastinal parietal pleura, the pericardium, the diaphragmatic pleura and peritoneum, and branches (phrenicoabdominales branches) that communicate with branches from the celiac plexus.nervus phrenicus [NA];
pneumogastric n. vagus n
popliteal communicating n. medial sural cutaneous n
posterior ampullar n. a branch of the vestibular part of the eighth nerve that supplies the crista ampullaris of the posterior semicircular duct.nervus ampullaris posterior [NA];
posterior antebrachial n. posterior interosseous n
posterior antebrachial cutaneous n. a branch of the radial nerve supplying the skin of the dorsal surface of the forearm.nervus cutaneus antebrachii posterior [NA], posterior cutaneous n. of forearm;
posterior auricular n. the first extracranial branch of the facial nerve, it passes behind the ear, supplying the posterior auricular muscle and intrinsic muscles of the auricle and, through its occipital branch, innervating the occipital belly of the occipitofrontalis muscle.nervus auricularis posterior [NA];
posterior brachial cutaneous n. a branch of the radial nerve supplying the skin of the posterior surface of the arm.nervus cutaneus brachii posterior [NA], posterior cutaneous n. of arm;
posterior cutaneous n. of arm posterior brachial cutaneous n
posterior cutaneous n. of forearm posterior antebrachial cutaneous n
posterior cutaneous n. of thigh posterior femoral cutaneous n
posterior ethmoidal n. a branch of the nasociliary nerve providing sensory innervation to the sphenoidal sinus and the posterior ethmoidal air cells.nervus ethmoidalis posterior [NA];
posterior femoral cutaneous n. arises from the first three sacral nerves, supplies the skin of the posterior surface of the thigh and of the popliteal region (S1 and S2 component); it gives off a perineal branch (S3 component) that passes to the lateral aspect of the scrotum or labia majora.nervus cutaneus femoris posterior [NA], posterior cutaneous n. of thigh, small sciatic n;
posterior interosseous n. the deep terminal branch of the radial nerve, arises in the cubital region, penetrating and supplying the supinator and continuing with the posterior interosseous artery to supply all the extensor muscles in the forearm.nervus interosseus posterior [NA], nervus antebrachii posterior [NA], deep branch of the radial nerve, dorsal interosseous n., nervus interosseus dorsalis, posterior antebrachial n;
posterior labial n.'s terminal branches of the superficial perineal nerve, supplying the skin of the posterior portion of the labia and the vestibule of the vagina, corresponding to the posterior scrotal nerves in the male.nervi labiales posteriores [NA];
posterior scapular n. dorsal scapular n
posterior scrotal n.'s several terminal branches of the superficial perineal nerve supplying the skin of the posterior portion of the scrotum, corresponding to the posterior labial nerves in the female.nervi scrotales posteriores [NA];
posterior supraclavicular n. lateral supraclavicular n
posterior thoracic n. long thoracic n
presacral n. superior hypogastric plexus
pressor n. an afferent n., stimulation of which excites a reflex vasoconstriction, thereby raising the blood pressure.
pressoreceptor n. a n. composed of afferent fibers the endings of which are sensitive to increases in mechanical pressure; the term specifically refers to sensory n.'s innervating the walls of hollow organs.baroreceptor n;
proper palmar digital n.'s the palmar nerves of the digits of the hand derived from common palmar digital nerves; each nerve supplies a palmar quadrant of a digit and a part of the dorsal surface of the distal phalanx.nervi digitales palmares proprii [NA];
proper plantar digital n.'s the ten nerves derived from the common plantar digital nerves; each nerve supplies a plantar quadrant of a toe and part of the dorsal surface of the distal phalanx.nervi digitales plantares proprii [NA];
pterygoid n. one of two motor branches, lateral and medial, of the mandibular nerve, supplying the lateral and medial pterygoid muscles with fibers of the motor root of the trigeninal nerve.nervus pterygoideus [NA];
n. of pterygoid canal the nerve constituting the parasympathetic and sympathetic root of the pterygopalatine ganglion; it is formed in the region of the foramen lacerum by the union of the greater superficial petrosal and the deep petrosal nerves, and runs through the pterygoid canal to the pterygopalatine fossa.nervus canalis pterygoidei [NA], radix facialis [NA], facial root, vidian n;
pterygopalatine n.'s ganglionic branches of maxillary nerve, under branch
pudendal n. formed by fibers from the ventral primary rami of the second, third, and fourth sacral spinal nerves; it exits the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen, passes posterior to the sacrospinous ligament, and accompanies the internal pudendal artery, into the perineum via the lesser sciatic foramen; it gives off inferior rectal nerves, then courses through the pudendal canal in the lateral wall of the ischiorectal fossa, terminating as the dorsal nerve of the penis or of the clitoris.nervus pudendus [NA], plexus pudendus nervosus, pudic n;
pudic n. pudendal n
radial n. arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus; it curves round the posterior surface of the humerus and passes down to the cubital fossa where it divides into its two terminal branches, the superficial branch and the deep branch; it supplies muscular and cutaneous branches to the posterior compartments of the arm and forearm. The radial n. is most commonly injured by fractures of the middle 1/3 of the humerus, resulting in a loss of extension at the wrist ("wrist drop").nervus radialis [NA], musculospiral n;
recurrent n. recurrent laryngeal n
recurrent laryngeal n. a branch of the vagus nerve curving upward, on the right side round the root of the subclavian artery, on the left side round the arch of the aorta, then passing up behind the common carotid artery and between the trachea and the esophagus to the larynx; it supplies cardiac, tracheal, and esophageal branches terminating as the inferior laryngeal nerve.nervus laryngeus recurrens [NA], recurrent n;
recurrent meningeal n. meningeal branches of 1) mandibular, 2) maxillary, 3) ophthalmic, and 4) spinal nerves.
n. to rhomboid dorsal scapular n
saccular n. a branch of the vestibular nerve going to the macula of the sacculus.nervus saccularis [NA];
sacral n.'s five nerves issuing from the sacral foramina on either side; the ventral branches of the first three enter into the formation of the sacral plexus, and the last two into the coccygeal plexus.nervi sacrales [NA];
sacral splanchnic n.'s branches from the sacral sympathetic trunk that pass to the inferior hypogastric plexus; part of the abdominopelvic (sympathetic) splanchnic nerves, but their specific function is unclear. They tend to be confused with the pelvic splanchnic nerves, which are much more significant structures.nervi splanchnici sacrales [NA];
saphenous n. a branch of the femoral, extending from the femoral triangle to the foot, becoming subcutaneous on the medial side of the knee; it supplies cutaneous branches to the skin of the leg and foot, by way of infrapatellar and medial crural branches.nervus saphenus [NA], internal saphenous n., long saphenous n;
sciatic n. arises from the sacral plexus, passes through the greater sciatic foramen and down the thigh, deep to the long head of biceps femoris n.; at the apex of the popliteal fossa it divides into the common peroneal and tibial nerves, although the two may separate at higher levels.nervus ischiadicus [NA], nervus sciaticus, great sciatic n;
second cranial n. optic n
secretomotor n. secretory n
secretory n. a n. conveying impulses that excite functional activity in a gland.secretomotor n;
sensory n. an afferent n. conveying impulses that are processed by the central nervous system so as to become part of the organism's perception of self and its environment.
seventh cranial n. facial n
short ciliary n. one of a number of branches of the ciliary ganglion, supplying the ciliary muscles, iris, and tunics of the eyeball.nervus ciliaris brevis [NA];
short saphenous n. sural n
sinus n. of Hering carotid sinus n
sinuvertebral n.'s meningeal branch of spinal nerves
sixth cranial n. abducent n
small deep petrosal n. caroticotympanic n
smallest splanchnic n. lowest splanchnic n
small sciatic n. posterior femoral cutaneous n
n. of smell olfactory n.'s
somatic n. one of the n.'s of parietal sensation or voluntary motion, as distinguished from the visceral sensory, involuntary motor and secretory n.'s.
space n. one of the branches of the vestibulocochlear n. distributed to the semicircular canals.
spinal n.'s the nerves emerging from the spinal cord; there are 31 pairs, each attached to the cord by two roots, anterior and posterior, or ventral and dorsal; the latter is provided with a circumscribed enlargement, the dorsal root (spinal) ganglion; the two roots unite in the intervertebral foramen, and the mixed spinal nerve almost immediately divides again into ventral and dorsal primary rami, the former supplying the anterolateral trunk and the limbs, the latter the true muscles and overlying skin of the back.nervi spinales [NA];
spinal accessory n. accessory n
splanchnic n. one of the n.'s supplying the viscera. There are three groups of splanchnic nerves: cardiopulmonary splanchnic n.'s, abdominopelvic n.'s, and pelvic splanchnic n.'s. See also entries underthe individual listings for the splanchnic nerves mentioned
n. to stapedius muscle a branch of the facial arising in the facial canal and innervating the stapedius muscle.nervus stapedius [NA];
statoacoustic n. vestibulocochlear n
subclavian n. a branch from the superior trunk of the brachial plexus supplying the subclavius muscle.nervus subclavius [NA];
subcostal n. the ventral ramus of the twelfth thoracic nerve; it courses below the last rib, supplies parts of the abdominal muscles and gives off cutaneous branches to the skin of the lower-most ventrolateral abdominal wall and to the superolateral gluteal region.nervus subcostalis [NA];
sublingual n. a branch of the lingual to the sublingual gland and mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth.nervus sublingualis [NA];
suboccipital n. dorsal ramus of the first cervical nerve, passing through the suboccipital triangle and sending branches to the rectus capitis posterior major and minor, obliquus capitis superior and inferior, rectus capitis lateralis, and semispinalis capitis; the first cervical spinal n. is generally considered to have only motor fibers, but the suboccipital n. receives sensory fibers for proprioception via a communicating branch from the second cervical spinal nerve.nervus suboccipitalis [NA];
subscapular n.'s two branches of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, an upper and lower, supplying the subscapularis muscle; the lower subscapular nerve also supplies the teres major muscle.nervi subscapulares [NA];
sudomotor n.'s n.'s containing autonomic (general visceral efferent - postganglionic) fibers that innervate sweat glands.
superficial cervical n. transverse cervical n
superficial fibular n. superficial peroneal n
superficial peroneal n. a branch of the common peroneal nerve which passes downward in the lateral compartment of the leg to supply the peroneus longus and brevis muscles and terminate as the intermediate and medial dorsal cutaneous n.'s supplying the skin of the dorsum of the foot and toes (except for adjacent sides of great and second toes).nervus fibularis superficialis [NA], nervus peroneus superficialis [NA], musculocutaneous n. of leg, superficial fibular n;
superior alveolar n.'s three branches (posterior, middle, and anterior) of the maxillary nerve (or its continuation as the infraorbital n.) that enter the maxilla to supply the mucosa of the maxillary sinus, upper teeth and gingiva.nervi alveolares superiores [NA], superior dental n.'s;
superior cervical cardiac n. the uppermost of the cardiopulmonary splanchnic n.'s which arises from the lower part of the superior cervical ganglion and passes down to form, with branches of the vagus, the cardiac plexus.nervus cardiacus cervicalis superior [NA];
superior cluneal n.'s terminal branches of the dorsal primary rami of the lumbar nerves, supplying the skin of the upper half of the gluteal region.nervi clunium superiores [NA];
superior dental n.'s superior alveolar n.'s
superior gluteal n. arises from the fourth and fifth lumbar and first sacral nerves, and supplies the gluteus medius and minimus and tensor fasciae latae muscles (abductors and medial rotators of the hip joint). A lesion of this n. causes the pelvis to drop on the unsupported side when the foot is lifted off the ground (Trendelenburg sign).nervus gluteus superior [NA];
superior laryngeal n. a branch of the vagus nerve at the inferior ganglion; at the thyroid cartilage it divides into two branches; the internal laryngeal nerve, a sensory branch which supplies the mucous membrane of the larynx superior to the vocal folds, and the external laryngeal nerve, a motor branch which supplies the inferior pharyngeal constrictor and the cricothyroid muscle.nervus laryngeus superior [NA];
superior lateral brachial cutaneous n. the terminal branch of the axillary n. supplying the skin over the lower portion of the deltoid and for a distance below its insertion.nervus cutaneus brachii lateralis superior [NA], upper lateral cutaneous n. of arm;
superior maxillary n. maxillary n
supraorbital n. a branch of the frontal n. leaving the orbit through the supraorbital foramen or notch and dividing into branches distributed to the forehead and scalp, upper eyelid, and frontal sinus.nervus supraorbitalis [NA];
suprascapular n. arises from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus (fifth and sixth cervical spinal n.'s), passes downward parallel to the cords of the brachial plexus, then through the scapular notch, supplying the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles, and also sending branches to the shoulder joint. It is vulnerable to injury in fractures of the middle 1/3 of the clavicle; a lesion of the suprascapular n. results in a loss of lateral rotation at the shoulder so that when relaxed the limb rotates medially (waiter's tip position); ability to initiate abduction is also affected.nervus suprascapularis [NA];
supratrochlear n. a branch of the frontal n. supplying the medial part of the upper eyelid, the central part of the skin of the forehead, and the root of the nose.nervus supratrochlearis [NA];
sural n. formed by the union of the medial sural cutaneous from the tibial and the peroneal communicating branch of the common peroneal nerve, usually about the middle of the calf, although this is highly variable; thence it accompanies the small saphenous vein around the lateral malleolus to the dorsum of the foot as the lateral dorsal cutaneous n.nervus suralis [NA], external saphenous n., short saphenous n;
sympathetic n. one of the n.'s of the sympathetic nervous system.
temporomandibular n. zygomatic n
n. of tensor tympani muscle a branch of the mandibular n. conveying fibers from the motor root of the trigeminal n. which pass through the otic ganglion without synapse to supply the tensor tympani muscle.nervus tensoris tympani [NA];
n. of tensor veli palatini muscle a branch of the mandibular n.conveying fibers from the motor root of the trigeminal n. which pass through the otic ganglion without synapse to supply the tensor veli palatini muscle.nervus tensoris veli palatini [NA];
tenth cranial n. vagus n
tentorial n. the tentorial branch, a branch arising in a recurrent fashion from the intracranial portion of the ophthalmic nerve supplying the tentorium and supratentorial falx cerebri.ramus tentorii [NA], nervus tentorii;
terminal n.'s nervi terminales, under nervus
third cranial n. oculomotor n
third occipital n. medial branch of the dorsal primary ramus of the third cervical nerve; this is usually joined with the greater occipital, but may exist as an independent nerve supplying cutaneous branches to the scalp and nucha.nervus occipitalis tertius [NA];
thoracic cardiac n.'s part of the cardiopulmonary splanchnic n.'s from the second to fifth segments of the thoracic sympathetic trunk that pass medially and anteriorly to enter the cardiac plexus; they convey postsynaptic sympathetic fibers to, and visceral afferent (pain) fibers from, the heart.nervi cardiaci thoracici [NA], upper thoracic splanchnic n.'s;
thoracic spinal n.'s twelve nerves on each side, mixed motor and sensory, supplying the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.nervi thoracici [NA];
thoracic splanchnic n.'s splanchnic n.'s arising from the thoracic portion of the sympathetic trunks; the upper thoracic splanchnic n.'s (from T1 to T4 or 5) pass to viscera above the diaphragm (mainly heart and lungs) and so are cardiopulmonary splanchnic n.'s; the lower thoracic splanchnic n.'s form the greater, lesser, and lowest splanchnic n.'s and supply viscera below the level of the diaphragm, and so are abdominopelvic splanchnic n.'s.
thoracoabdominal n.'s the ventral primary rami of spinal nerves T7-T11 (seventh to eleventh intercostal n.'s), which supply the abdominal as well as the thoracic wall; innervate intercostal, subcostal, serratus posterior inferior, transversus abdominis, external and internal oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles, and provide sensory branches to the periphery of the diaphragm, and parietal pleura and peritoneum.rami cutanei anteriores pectoralis et abdominalis nervorum intercostalium [NA], ramus cutaneus anterior (pectoralis et abdominalis) nervorum thoracicorum [NA], anterior cutaneous n.'s of abdomen, pectoral and abdominal anterior cutaneous branch of intercostal nerves;
thoracodorsal n. arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus; it contains fibers from the sixth, seventh, and eighth cervical nerves and supplies the latissimus dorsi muscle.nervus thoracodorsalis [NA], long subscapular n;
n. to thyrohyoid muscle the thyrohyoid branch, contains fibers of the first and second cervical nerves that have accompanied the hypoglossal nerve to the suprahyoid region, then branch from it to reach the thyrohyoid muscle.ramus thyrohyoideus ansae cervicalis [NA];
tibial n. one of the two major divisions of the sciatic nerve, it courses down the back of the leg to terminate as the medial and lateral plantar nerves in the foot; it supplies the hamstring muscles, the muscles of the back of the leg (the dorsiflexors and invertors of the foot) and the plantar aspect of the foot, as well as the skin on the back of the leg and sole of the foot.nervus tibialis [NA], medial popliteal n;
tibial communicating n. medial sural cutaneous n
Tiedemann's n. a sympathetic n. accompanying the central artery of the retina in the optic n.
transverse cervical n. a branch of the cervical plexus that supplies the skin over the anterior triangle of the neck.nervus transversus colli [NA], cutaneous cervical n., nervus cervicalis superficialis, superficial cervical n., transverse n. of neck;
transverse n. of neck transverse cervical n
trifacial n. trigeminal n
trigeminal n. the chief sensory nerve of the face and the motor nerve of the muscles of mastication; its nuclei are in the mesencephalon and in the pons extending down into the cervical portion of the spinal cord; it emerges by two roots, sensory and motor, from the lateral portion of the surface of the pons, and enters a cavity of the dura mater, the trigeminal cave, at the apex of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, where the sensory root expands to form the trigeminal ganglion; from there the three divisions (ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular n.'s) arise.nervus trigeminus [NA], fifth cranial n., trifacial n;
trochlear n. supplies the superior oblique muscle of the eye; its origin is in the midbrain below the cerebral aqueduct, its fibers decussate in the superior medullary velum, and emerge from the brain at the side of the frenulum, the only cranial n. to arise from the dorsal aspect of the brain stem; it therefore has the longest intracranial course, entering the dura in the free edge of the tentorium, close to the posterior clinoid process, and passing in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus to enter the orbit through the superior orbital fissure.nervus trochlearis [NA], fourth cranial n., pathetic n;
twelfth cranial n. hypoglossal n
tympanic n. a nerve from the inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve, passing through the tympanic canaliculus to the tympanic cavity, forming there the tympanic plexus which supplies the mucous membrane of the tympanic cavity, mastoid cells, and auditory tube; presynaptic parasympathetic fibers also pass through the tympanic nerve via the lesser superficial petrosal nerve to the otic ganglion, where they synapse with postsynaptic fibers that continue to supply the parotid gland.nervus tympanicus [NA], Andersch's n., Jacobson's n;
n. of tympanic membrane branch of auriculotemporal nerve to tympanic membrane
ulnar n. arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus and passes down the arm, behind the medial epicondyle of the humerus, and down the ulnar side of the anterior compartment of the forearm to the hand; it gives off muscular branches in the forearm to the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and the ulnar portion of flexor digitorum profundus and supplies hypothenar, interosseous, medial lumbricals, adductor pollicis and deep head of flexor hallucis brevis; intrinsic muscles of the hand and the skin of the small finger and medial side of the ring finger and adjacent portions of the palm of the hand. The ulnar n. is most vulnerable to injury where it passes subcutaneously behind the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Mild injury here produces "crazy bone" sensation. An ulnar n. lesion here results in loss of flexion of metacarpophalangeal joints and of extension at the interphalangeal joints ("claw hand").nervus ulnaris [NA], cubital n;
unmyelinated n. a n. made up largely, or exclusively, of unmyelinated fibers; a n. composed of axons having no myelin covering, but lying in troughs in Schwann cells; a slow conducting n.
upper lateral cutaneous n. of arm superior lateral brachial cutaneous n
upper subscapular n. See subscapular n.'s.
upper thoracic splanchnic n.'s thoracic cardiac n.'s
utricular n. a branch of the utriculoampullar nerve, supplying the macula of the utricle.nervus utricularis [NA];
utriculoampullar n. a division of the vestibular part of the eighth cranial nerve; it gives off branches to the macula of the utricle (utricular n.) and to the cristae of the ampullae of the anterior and lateral semicircular ducts (anterior and lateral ampullary n.'s).nervus utriculoampullaris [NA];
vaginal n.'s several nerves passing from the uterovaginal plexus to the vagina.nervi vaginales [NA];
vagus n. a mixed nerve that arises by numerous small roots from the side of the medulla oblongata, between the glossopharyngeal above and the accessory below; it leaves the cranial cavity by the jugular foramen and passes down to supply the pharynx; larynx, trachea, lungs, heart, and the gastrointestinal tract as far as the left colic (splenic) flexure.nervus vagus [NA], pneumogastric n., tenth cranial n., vagus;
Valentin's n. a n. that connects the pterygopalatine ganglion with the abducens n.
vascular n. a small nerve filament that supplies the wall of a blood vessel.nervus vascularis [NA];
vasomotor n. a motor n. effecting or inhibiting contraction of the blood vessels.
vertebral n. a branch from the stellate ganglion that ascends along the vertebral artery to the level of the axis or atlas, giving branches to the cervical nerves and meninges.nervus vertebralis [NA];
vestibular n. the part of the vestibulocochlear n. peripheral to the vestibular root; it is composed of the central processes of bipolar neurons which have their terminals of their peripheral processes on the hair cells in the ampullae of the semicircular ducts and the maculae of the saccule and utricle, and cell bodies of the vestibular ganglion. See also vestibular root.nervus vestibularis [NA], pars vestibularis nervi vestibulocochlearis [NA], superior part of vestibulocochlear nerve, vestibular part of vestibulocochlear nerve;
vestibulocochlear n. a composite sensory nerve innervating the receptor cells of the membranous labyrinth; it consists of two major, anatomically and functionally distinct components each of which have different central connections: the vestibular nerve and cochlear nerve.nervus vestibulocochlearis [NA], eighth cranial n., eighth n., nervus acusticus, nervus octavus, nervus statoacusticus, octavus, statoacoustic n;
vidian n. n. of pterygoid canal
visceral n. a term describing n.'s conveying autonomic (general visceral efferent) fibers.
volar interosseous n. anterior interosseous n
Wrisberg's n. 1. medial brachial cutaneous n 2. nervus intermedius
zygomatic n. a branch of the maxillary n. in the inferior orbital fissure through which it passes; it gives rise to two sensory branches, the zygomaticotemporal and zygomaticofacial, which supply the skin of the temporal and zygomatic regions and is continued as the communicating branch of the lacrimal n. with the zygomatic n.nervus zygomaticus [NA], orbital n., temporomandibular n;

 

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