neuropathy

neuropathy (nu-rop´a-the)

1. A classical term for any disorder affecting any segment of the nervous system. 2. In contemporary usage, a disease involving the cranial nerves, or the peripheral or autonomic nervous sytems.neuritis (2); [neuro- + G. pathos, suffering]
asymmetric motor n. 1. n. in which the loss of function is more marked in the extremities of one side of the body; 2. old term for diabetic polyradiculopathy.
brachial plexus n. neuralgic amyotrophybrachial neuritis;
chronic interstitial hypertrophic n. progressive hypertrophic polyneuropathy
compression n. a focal nerve lesion produced when sustained pressure is applied to a localized portion of the nerve, either from an external or internal source; the main source of injury is the pressure differential that exists between one portion of the nerve and another.
dapsone n. a peripheral n. that develops in patients taking dapsone (4,4-diaminodiphenylsulfone); unusual features include being a pure motor n., and beginning in the hands, sometimes asymmetrically.
diabetic n. a generic term for any diabetes mellitus-related disorder of the peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, and some cranial nerves.This most commonly occurring of the chronic complications of diabetes takes two forms, peripheral and autonomous. The peripheral type causes a dulling of the sensations of pain, temperature, and pressure, especially in the lower legs and feet, and may be treated with drugs (e.g., amitriptyline). The autonomous type results in alternating bouts of diarrhea and constipation, impotence, and reduced cardiac function, and is more refractory.
diphtheritic n. a rapidly developing peripheral n. caused by a toxin elaborated by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
entrapment n. a focal nerve lesion produced by constriction or mechanical distortion of the nerve, within a fibrous or fibro-osseous tunnel, or by a fibrous band; with these lesions, stretching and angulation of the nerve may be as important a source of injury as compression; entrapment n.'s tend to occur at particular sites in the body.
familial amyloid n. [MIM*176300, various kinds] a disorder in which various peripheral nerves are infiltrated with amyloid and their functions disturbed, an abnormal prealbumin is also formed and is present in the blood; characteristically, it begins during mid-life and is found largely in persons of Portuguese descent; autosomal dominant inheritance. Other rare clinical types occur.familial amyloidosis, hereditary amyloidosis;
giant axonal n. a rare disorder beginning at or after the third year of life, and presenting clinically with kinky hair, progressive painless clumsiness, muscle weakness and atrophy, sensory loss, and areflexia. Pathologically, both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers contain axonal spheroids packed with neurofilaments; sporadic in nature.
Graves' optic n. visual dysfunction due to optic nerve compression in Graves' orbitopathy.
heavy metal n. peripheral nervous system disorders attributed to intoxication of one of the heavy metals: arsenic, gold, lead, mercury, platinum and thallium.
hereditary hypertrophic n. [MIM*165000] progressive hypertrophic polyneuropathy
hereditary sensory radicular n. [MIM*162400] n. characterized by the occurrence of severe, relapsing foot ulcerations of neuropathic origin, destruction of terminal digits of feet and hands, and a loss of sensation; autosomal dominant inheritance is associated with onset in the second decade or later.
hypertrophic interstitial n. sensorimotor neuropathy characterized pathologically by collections of Schwann cell processes arranged concentrically around one or more nerve fibers. No genetic factors are known in its etiology.For hereditary types, see hereditary hypertrophic n.
ischemic n. n. resulting from acute or chronic ischemia of the involved nerves.
ischemic optic n. optic nerve n. secondary to hypoperfusion of the low pressure posterior ciliary arteries supplying the optic nerve head (nonarteritic) or to temporal arteritis (arteritic).
isoniazid n. an axonal form of n. seen in some patients treated with isoniazid.
lead n. a peripheral n. reportedly seen in chronic lead intoxication; reputedly characterized by wrist-drop, but no convincing modern reports of this are available.
leprous n. a slowly developing granulomatous n., commonly seen in leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae.
motor dapsone n. a peripheral n. due to ingestion of 4,4-deaminodiphenylsulphone.
onion bulb n. designation for any of several demyelinating polyneuropathies in which the nerves are enlarged, due to onion bulb formation-whorls of overlapping Schwann cell processes encircling bare medullated axons, e.g., progressive hypertrophic polyneuropathy. See hypertrophic interstitial n.
symmetric distal n. polyneuropathy
vitamin B12 n. subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord

 

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