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nucleus, pl. nuclei (nu´kle-us, nu´kle-I)
1. In cytology, typically a rounded or oval mass of protoplasm within the cytoplasm of a plant or animal cell; it is surrounded by a nuclear envelope, which encloses euchromatin, heterochromatin, and one or more nucleoli, and undergoes mitosis during cell division.karyon; 2. By extension, because of similar function, the genome of microorganisms (microbes) that is relatively simple in structure, lacks a nuclear membrane, and does not undergo mitosis during replication.nucleoid (3); See also virion. 3. [NA] In neuroanatomy, a group of nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord that can be demarcated from neighboring groups on the basis of either differences in cell type or the presence of a surrounding zone of nerve fibers or cell-poor neuropil. 4. Any substance (e.g., foreign body, mucus, crystal) around which a urinary or other calculus is formed. 5. The central portion of an atom (composed of protons and neutrons) where most of the mass and all of the positive charge are concentrated. [L. a little nut, the kernel, stone of fruits, the inside of a thing, dim. of nux, nut]
abducens n. , n. of abducent nerve , n. abducen´tis a group of motor neurons in the lower part of the pons, innervating the lateral rectus muscle of the eye; unique among motor cranial nerve nuclei in that it consists of two distinct populations of neurons: neurons that give rise to fibers forming the abducens nerve root and those internuclear neurons whose processes cross the midline, ascend in the opposite medial longitudinal fasciculus, and terminate upon specific oculomotor neurons; considered a primary center for mechanisms controlling conjugate horizontal gaze.n. nervi abducentis [NA];
accessory cuneate n. a cell group lateral to the cuneate n. which receives posterior-root fibers corresponding to the proprioceptive innervation of the arm and hand; it projects to the cerebellum by way of the cuneocerebellar tract, and can be considered the upper-extremity equivalent of the thoracic n.n. cuneatus accessorius [NA], external cuneate n., lateral cuneate n., Monakow's n;
accessory olivary nuclei See dorsal accessory olivary n., medial accessory olivary n.
n. accum´bens sep´ti the region of fusion between the head of the caudate n. and the putamen, covered on the ventral side by the olfactory tubercle. The name ("a nucleus leaning against the septum") refers to a medial, hook-shaped expansion of this anteroventral region of the striatum which curves under the floor of the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and ascends for some distance into the ventral half of the septal region.
n. acu´sticus obsolete term for the combined vestibular and cochlear nuclei.
n. a´lae cine´reae dorsal n. of vagus nerve
almond n. amygdaloid body
ambiguous n. n. ambiguus
n. ambig´uus [NA] a very slender, longitudinal column of motor neurons in the ventrolateral medulla oblongata; its efferent fibers leave with the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerve and innervate the striated muscle fibers of the pharynx (including the musculus levator veli palatini) and the vocal cord muscles of the larynx.ambiguous n;
n. amyg´dalae amygdaloid body
amygdaloid n. amygdaloid body
nu´clei anterio´res thal´ami [NA] anterior nuclei of thalamus
anterior nuclei of thalamus collective term for three groups of nerve cells which together form the anterior thalamic tubercle: the anteroventral nuclei, a relatively large n.; the anteromedial nuclei; and the anterodorsal nuclei, a small (but large-celled) n. The nuclei receive the mamillothalamic tract from the mamillary body, and additional afferents by way of the fornix; they project collectively to the cortex of the cingulate and parahippocampal gyrus.nuclei anteriores thalami [NA];
n. anterodorsa´lis [NA] anterodorsal thalamic n
anterodorsal thalamic n. n. anterodorsalis [NA]; See anterior nuclei of thalamus.
n. anteromedia´lis [NA] anteromedial thalamic n
anteromedial thalamic n. n. anteromedialis [NA]; See anterior nuclei of thalamus.
n. anteroventra´lis [NA] anteroventral thalamic n
anteroventral thalamic n. n. anteroventralis [NA]; See anterior nuclei of thalamus.
arcuate n. 1. posterior periventricular n; arcuate n. of thalamus 2. a cell group in the hypothalamus, located in the lowest part of the infundibulum adjacent to the median eminence.
arcuate nuclei a variable assembly of small cell groups, probably outlying components of the pontine nuclei, on the ventral and medial aspects of the pyramid in the medulla oblongata.nuclei arcuati [NA];
arcuate n. of thalamus the small ventral region of the ventral posteromedial n. of thalamus in which the fibers of the gustatory lemniscus and secondary trigeminal tracts terminate; it projects to the lower part of the postcentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex.arcuate n. (1), n. arcuatus thalami, n. arcuatus, semilunar n. of Flechsig, thalamic gustatory n;
nu´clei arcua´ti [NA] arcuate nuclei
n. arcua´tus arcuate n. of thalamus
n. arcua´tus thal´ami arcuate n. of thalamus
auditory n. See nuclei nervi vestibulocochlearis.
autonomic nuclei nuclei located in the spinal cord (T1-L2, S2-S4) and in the brainstem (Edinger-Westphal n., superior and inferior salivatory nuclei, dorsal vagal n. and parts of the ambiguus n.) from which general visceral efferent preganglionic fibers arise; may be sympathetic (T1-L2) or parasympathetic (craniosacral); hypothalamic nuclei/areas function in concert with autonomic nuclei.
basal nuclei n. of the cerebral hemisphere that originally included the caudate and lenticular nuclei, the claustrum and the amygdaloid body (complex); functionally the term basal nuclei now specifies the caudate and lenticular nuclei and adjacent cell groups having important connections therewith (subthalamic n.; substantia nigra, partes compacta and reticulata); amygdaloid complex now known to be part of the limbic system;nuclei basales;
nuclei basales basal nuclei
basal n. of Ganser a large group of large cells in the innominate substance, ventral to the lentiform n.n. basalis of Ganser;
n. basa´lis of Ganser basal n. of Ganser
Bechterew's n. 1. See vestibular n. 2. n. centralis tegmenti superior
benzene n. the six conjugated carbon atoms of the benzene ring.
Blumenau's n. the lateral cuneate n. of the medulla oblongata.
branchiomotor nuclei collective term for those motoneuronal nuclei of the brainstem (n. ambiguus, facial motor n., motor n. of the trigeminus) that develop from the branchiomotor column of the embryo and innervate striated muscle fibers (muscles of mastication, facial musculature, pharynx and vocal cord muscles) developed from the mesenchyme of the branchial arches.special visceral efferent nuclei, special visceral motor nuclei;
Burdach's n. cuneate n
caudate n. an elongated curved mass of gray matter, consisting of an anterior thick portion, the caput or head, which protrudes into the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, a portion extending along the floor of the body of the lateral ventricle, known as the corpus or body, and an elongated curved thin portion, the cauda or tail, which curves downward, backward, and forward in the temporal lobe in the wall of the lateral ventricle.n. caudatus [NA], caudate (2), caudatum;
n. cauda´tus [NA] caudate n
n. centra´lis latera´lis thal´ami central lateral n. of thalamus
n. centra´lis tegmen´ti supe´rior one of the nuclei raphes.Bechterew's n. (2);
central lateral n. of thalamus the most lateral of the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus.n. centralis lateralis thalami;
centromedian n. a large, lentil-shaped cell group, the largest and most caudal of the intralaminar nuclei, located within the lamina medullaris interna of the thalamus between the mediodorsal n. and ventrobasal n.; so called by Luys because of its prominent appearance on frontal sections midway between the anterior and posterior pole of the human thalamus. The n. receives numerous fibers from the internal segment of the globus pallidus by way of the thalamic fasciculus, ansa lenticularis, and lenticular fasciculus as well as projections from area 4 of the motor cortex; its major efferent connection is with the putamen although collaterals reach broad areas of the cerebral cortex.n. centromedianus [NA], centre médian de Luys, centrum medianum;
n. centromedia´nus [NA] centromedian n
cerebellar nuclei collective term for the dentate, globosus, and emboliform nuclei, and the tectal and fastigial nuclei of the cerebellum.
ceruleus n. a widely used term designating the locus ceruleus; See locus ceruleus.
Clarke's n. thoracic n
cochlear nuclei nuclei cochleares
nu´clei cochlea´res NA] the n. cochlearis dorsalis and n. cochlearis ventralis, located on the dorsal and lateral surface of the inferior cerebellar peduncle, in the floor of the lateral recess of the rhomboid fossa. They receive the incoming fibers of the cochlear part of the vestibulocochlear nerve and are the major source of origin of the lateral lemniscus or central auditory pathway.cochlear nuclei, nuclei nervi cochlearis;
n. collic´uli inferio´ris [NA] n. of inferior colliculus
convergence n. of Perlia Perlia's n
n. cor´poris genicula´ti media´lis [NA] n. of medial geniculate body
nu´clei cor´poris mamilla´ris [NA] nuclei of mamillary body
nuclei of cranial nerves groups of nerve cells associated with the cranial nerves either as motor nuclei (nuclei originis) or sensory nuclei (nuclei terminationis).nuclei nervorum cranialium [NA];
cuneate n. the larger Burdach's n.; one of the three nuclei of the posterior column of the spinal cord; located near the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata at and below the level of the obex, the n. receives posterior root fibers corresponding to the sensory innervation of the arm and hand of the same side; together with its medial companion, the gracile n., it is the major source of origin of the medial lemniscus.n. cuneatus [NA], Burdach's n., n. funiculi cuneati, n. of cuneate fasciculus;
n. of cuneate fasciculus cuneate n
n. cunea´tus [NA] cuneate n
n. cunea´tus accesso´rius [NA] accessory cuneate n
n. of Darkschewitsch an ovoid cell group in the ventral central gray substance rostral to the oculomotor nucleus, receiving fibers from the vestibular nuclei by way of the medial longitudinal fasciculus; projections are not known, although some cross in the posterior commissure.
Deiters' n. See vestibular n.
dentate n. of cerebellum the most lateral and largest of the cerebellar nuclei; it receives the axons of the Purkinje cells of the neocerebellum (lateral areas of cerebellar cortex); together with the more medially located globosus and emboliform nuclei it is the major source of fibers composing the massive superior cerebellar peduncle or brachium conjunctivum.n. dentatus cerebelli [NA], corpus dentatum, dentatum;
n. denta´tus cerebel´li [NA] dentate n. of cerebellum
descending n. of the trigeminus spinal trigeminal n
diploid n. a n. containing the diploid or normal double complement of chromosomes for one somatic cell.
dorsal n. thoracic n
dorsal accessory olivary n. a detached part of the olivary n. dorsal to the latter's main body.n. olivaris accessorius dorsalis [NA];
n. dorsa´lis thoracic n
n. dorsa´lis cor´poris trapezoi´dei [NA] dorsal n. of trapezoid body
n. dorsa´lis ner´vi va´gi [NA] dorsal n. of vagus nerve
dorsal motor n. of vagus dorsal n. of vagus nerve
dorsal n. of trapezoid body a circumscript, bipartite cell group located ventrolaterally in the lower pontine tegmentum, immediately dorsal to the trapezoid body; the n. receives fibers from both the ipsilateral and contralateral cochlear nuclei, and contributes fibers to the lateral (auditory) lemniscus of both sides. It is believed to be prominently involved in the function of spatial localization of sound.n. dorsalis corporis trapezoidei [NA], oliva superior, superior olivary n., superior olive;
dorsal vagal n. dorsal n. of vagus nerve
dorsal n. of vagus dorsal n. of vagus nerve
dorsal n. of vagus nerve the visceral motor n. located in the vagal trigone (ala cinerea) of the floor of the fourth ventricle. It gives rise to the parasympathetic fibers of the vagus nerve innervating the heart muscle and the smooth musculature and glands of the respiratory and intestinal tracts.n. dorsalis nervi vagi [NA], dorsal motor n. of vagus, dorsal n. of vagus, dorsal vagal n., n. alae cinereae;
dorsomedial n. medial n. of thalamus
dorsomedial hypothalamic n. dorsomedial n. of hypothalamus
dorsomedial n. of hypothalamus an oval cluster of cells located dorsal to the ventromedial hypothalamic n.n. dorsomedialis hypothalami [NA], dorsomedial hypothalamic n;
n. dorsomedia´lis hypothal´ami [NA] dorsomedial n. of hypothalamus
droplet nuclei particles 1-10 mum in diameter, implicated in spread of airborne infection; the dried residue formed by evaporation of droplets coughed or sneezed into the atmosphere or by aerosolization of infective material.
Edinger-Westphal n. a small group of preganglionic parasympathetic motor neurons in the midline near the rostral pole of the oculomotor n. of the midbrain; the axons of these motor neurons leave the brain with the oculomotor nerve and synapse on the cells of the ciliary ganglion which in turn innervate the sphincter muscle of the pupil and ciliary muscle. Destruction of this n. or its efferent fibers causes maximal paralytic dilation of the pupil; also demonstrated to project fibers to lower levels of the brainstem and all spinal levels.
emboliform n. a small wedge-shaped n. in the central white substance of the cerebellum just internal to the hilus of the dentate n.; receives axons of Purkinje cells of the intermediate area of the cerebellar cortex; axons of these cells exit the cerebellum via the superior cerebellar peduncle.n. emboliformis [NA], embolus (2);
n. embolifor´mis [NA] emboliform n
external cuneate n. accessory cuneate n
facial n. a group of motor neurons located in the ventrolateral region of the lower pontine tegmentum and innervating the facial muscles, the stapedius muscle in the middle ear, the posterior limb of the musculus digastricus, and the stylohyoid muscle.n. nervi facialis [NA], facial motor n., motor n. of facial nerve, n. facialis;
n. facia´lis facial n
facial motor n. facial n
n. fascic´uli gra´cilis gracile n
fastigial n. the most medial of the cerebellar nuclei, lying medial to the interpositus n., near the midline, in the white matter underneath the vermis of the cerebellar cortex. It receives the axons of Purkinje cells from all parts of the vermis. Its major projection is to the vestibular nuclei and medullary reticular formation.n. fastigii [NA], fastigatum, n. tecti, roof n., tectal n;
n. fasti´gii [NA] fastigial n
n. fibro´sus lin´guae septum of tongue
filiform n. paraventricular n
n. filifor´mis paraventricular n
n. funic´uli cunea´ti cuneate n
n. funic´uli gra´cilis gracile n
gametic n. micronucleus (2)
n. gelatino´sus n. pulposus
gelatinous n. n. pulposus
geniculatus lateralis n. See lateral geniculate body.
germ n. micronucleus (2)
n. gigantocellula´ris medul´lae oblonga´tae gigantocellular n. of medulla oblongata
gigantocellular n. of medulla oblongata one of the three major nuclei of the reticular formation of the brainstem.n. gigantocellularis medullae oblongatae;
n. globo´sus [NA] globosus n
globosus n. a group of two or three small masses of gray substance in the white central core of the cerebellum, medial to the emboliform n.; receives axons of Purkinje cells of the intermediate area of the cerebellar cortex; axons of these cells exit the cerebellum via the superior cerebellar peduncle.n. globosus [NA], spherical n;
n. of Goll gracile n
gonad n. micronucleus (2)
gracile n. the medial one of the three nuclei of the dorsal column, the remaining two being the cuneate n. and the accessory cuneate n., which corresponds to the clava; it receives dorsal-root fibers conveying sensory innervation of the leg, and lower trunk, and projects, by way of the medial lemniscus, to the ventral n. posterior n. of the thalamus.n. gracilis [NA], n. fasciculi gracilis, n. funiculi gracilis, n. of Goll;
n. gra´cilis [NA] gracile n
Gudden's tegmental nuclei tegmental nuclei
gustatory n. See rhombencephalic gustatory n., thalamic gustatory n.
n. haben´ulae [NA] habenular n
habenular n. the gray matter of the habenula, composed of a small-celled medial and a larger-celled lateral habenular n.; both nuclei receive fibers from basal forebrain regions (septum, basal n., lateral preoptic n.); the lateral habenular n. receives an additional projection from the medial segment of the globus pallidus. Both nuclei project by way of the retroflex fasciculus to the interpeduncular n. and a medial zone of the midbrain tegmentum.n. habenulae [NA], ganglion habenulae;
hypoglossal n. the motor n. innervating the intrinsic and four of the five extrinsic muscles of the tongue; it is located in the medulla oblongata near the midline, immediately beneath the floor of the inferior recess of the rhomboid fossa.n. nervi hypoglossi [NA], n. of hypoglossal nerve;
n. of hypoglossal nerve hypoglossal n
n. of inferior colliculus the nerve cell groups composing the colliculus inferior.n. colliculi inferioris [NA];
inferior olivary n. a large aggregate of small densely packed nerve cells arranged in folded laminae shaped like a purse with the opening (hilum) directed medially. It corresponds in position to the oliva, projects to all parts of the contralateral half of the cerebellar cortex by way of the olivocerebellar tract, and is the only source of cerebellar climbing fibers. Its afferent connections include fibers from the spinal cord, the dentate nucleus and motor cortex, but its major input appears to be the central tegmental tract originating from multiple nuclei at midbrain levels.n. olivaris [NA];
inferior salivary n. inferior salivatory n
inferior salivatory n. a group of preganglionic parasympathetic motor neurons located in the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata dorsal to the n. ambiguus; its axons leave the brain with the glossopharyngeal nerve and govern secretion from the parotid gland by the intermediary of the ganglion oticum; cells of the inferior and superior n. are scattered and overlapping in lateral regions of the reticular formation.n. salivatorius inferior [NA], inferior salivary n;
inferior vestibular n. n. vestibularis inferior. See also vestibular n.
intercalated n. a small collection of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata lying lateral to the hypoglossal n.n. intercalatus [NA], Staderini's n;
n. intercala´tus [NA] intercalated n
intermediolateral n. the cell column that forms the lateral horn of the spinal cord's gray matter. Extending from the first thoracic through the second lumbar segment, the column contains the autonomic motor neurons that give rise to the preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic system.intermediolateral cell column of spinal cord, n. intermediolateralis;
n. intermediolatera´lis intermediolateral n
intermediomedial n. a small group of scattered visceral motor neurons immediately ventral to the thoracic n. in the thoracic and upper two lumbar segments of the spinal cord; considered to receive visceral afferent fibers at all spinal levels.n. intermediomedialis;
n. intermediomedia´lis intermediomedial n
interpeduncular n. a median, unpaired, ovoid cell group at the base of the midbrain tegmentum between the cerebral peduncles; it receives the retroflex fasciculus from the habenula, and projects to the raphe region (raphe nuclei) and periaqueductal gray substance of the midbrain.n. interpeduncularis [NA], ganglion isthmi, Gudden's ganglion, intercrural ganglion, interpeduncular ganglion;
n. interpeduncula´ris [NA] interpeduncular n
n. interpos´itus interpositus n
interpositus n. collective term denoting the combined globosus nuclei and emboliform nuclei of the cerebellum; more correctly used as interposed nuclei as it identifies two cell groups.n. interpositus;
interstitial n. a group of widely spaced, medium-sized neurons in the dorsomedial region of the upper mesencephalic tegmentum, immediately lateral to the n. of Darkschewitsch; together with the latter, the interstitial n. is closely associated with the medial longitudinal fasciculus, via which it receives fibers from the vestibular nuclei and projects crossed fibers via the posterior commissure to the oculomotor n.; also projects fibers to all spinal levels. It is believed to be involved in the integration of head and eye movements, particularly eye movements of a vertical or oblique nature.n. interstitialis [NA], interstitial n. of Cajal;
interstitial n. of Cajal interstitial n
n. interstitia´lis [NA] interstitial n
nu´clei intralamina´res thal´ami [NA] intralaminar nuclei of thalamus
intralaminar nuclei of thalamus collective term denoting several cell groups embedded in the internal medullary lamina of the thalamus: central lateral n., paracentral n., and farthest caudally, the large centromedian n. The first two of these receive afferents from the cerebral cortex, brainstem, reticular formation, cerebellum, and spinal cord, and project more or less diffusely to large regions of the frontal and parietal cortex. See also centromedian n.nuclei intralaminares thalami [NA];
Klein-Gumprecht shadow nuclei shadow nuclei in degenerating lymphoidocytes and macrolymphocytes in leukemia.
lateral cervical nuclei diffusely arranged n. located in the dorsal portions of the lateral funiculus in about cervical levels C1-C3; synaptic station for the spinocervicothalamic tract.
lateral cuneate n. accessory cuneate n
n. of lateral geniculate body n. of the thalamus characterized by six layers of cells, two parvicellular, four magnocellular, alternating with thin layers of fibers; receives bilateral visual input, projects to calcarine cortex.
n. latera´lis medul´lae oblonga´tae [NA] lateral n. of medulla oblongata
n. latera´lis thal´ami [NA] lateral n. of thalamus
n. of lateral lemniscus a substantial cell mass embedded in the lateral lemniscus, immediately below the latter's entry into the inferior colliculus; the n. represents a synaptic way-station for part of the fibers of the lateral lemniscus.n. lemnisci lateralis [NA];
lateral n. of medulla oblongata a group of cells in the medulla oblongata, located between the inferior olive and the descending trigeminal n., receiving fibers from the spinal cord and motor cortex and projecting to the cerebellum.n. lateralis medullae oblongatae [NA], lateral reticular n;
lateral preoptic n. a vaguely defined group of nerve cells in the lateral zone of the preoptic region.n. preopticus lateralis [NA];
lateral reticular n. lateral n. of medulla oblongata
lateral n. of thalamus the largest of the major subdivisions of the thalamus; the composite lateral n. includes, from before backward, the n. lateralis anterior or dorsalis, n. lateralis intermedius, n. lateralis posterior, and pulvinar; together, these cell groups form most of the free dorsal surface of the posterior half of the thalamus and project to a very large region of parietal, occipitoparietal, and temporal cortex; its afferent connections are largely obscure, but the n. lateralis posterior and the pulvinar receive a projection from the superior colliculus.n. lateralis thalami [NA];
lateral tuberal nuclei tuberal nuclei
lateral vestibular n. n. vestibularis lateralis. See vestibular n.
n. lemnis´ci latera´lis [NA] n. of lateral lemniscus
n. of lens n. lentis
lenticular n. , lentiform n. the large cone-shaped mass of gray matter forming the central core of the cerebral hemisphere. The convex base of the cone, oriented laterally and rostrally, is formed by the putamen which together with the caudate nucleus composes the striatum; the apical part, oriented medially and caudally, consists of the two segments of the globus pallidus. The n. is ventral and lateral to the thalamus and caudate n., from which it is separated by the internal capsule, and together with the caudate n. composes the striate body.n. lentiformis [NA], lenticula (1);
n. lentifor´mis [NA] lenticular n
n. len´tis [NA] the core or inner dense portion of the lens of the eye.n. of lens;
n. of Luys subthalamic n
n. of the mamillary body nuclei of mamillary body
nuclei of mamillary body a single large-celled lateral n. and a larger bipartite medial n. together comprising the mamillary body; present in the caudal hypothalamus.nuclei corporis mamillaris [NA], n. of the mamillary body;
n. masticato´rius motor n. of trigeminal nerve
masticatory n. motor n. of trigeminal nerve
medial accessory olivary n. a detached part of the olivary n. medial to the latter's main body, against the lateral side of the medial lemniscus and pyramidal tract.n. olivaris accessorius medialis [NA];
medial central n. of thalamus a small cell group in the interthalamic adhesion of the thalamus, occupying the midline region of the internal medullary lamina, between the left and the right paracentral n.n. medialis centralis thalami [NA];
n. of medial geniculate body the nerve cell groups composing the medial geniculate body (corpus geniculatum mediale).n. corporis geniculati medialis [NA];
n. media´lis centra´lis thal´ami [NA] medial central n. of thalamus
n. media´lis thal´ami [NA] medial n. of thalamus
medial preoptic n. a group of nerve cells forming the medial zone of the preoptic region.n. preopticus medialis [NA];
medial n. of thalamus a large, composite cell group in the dorsomedial region of the thalamus having reciprocal connections with the entire extent of the frontal cortex anterior to the motor cortex (area 4) and premotor cortex (area 6). The afferent connections of the medial n. also include projections from the olfactory cortex and amygdala.n. medialis thalami [NA], dorsomedial n., mediodorsal n;
medial vestibular n. n. vestibularis medialis. See vestibular n.
mediodorsal n. medial n. of thalamus
mesencephalic n. of trigeminal nerve a long, narrow plate of unipolar neurons extending throughout the length of the midbrain, in and along the lateral angle of the central gray substance. The n. is the single known instance of primary sensory neurons enclosed in the central nervous system instead of in a peripheral sensory ganglion. Its peripheral axonal processes pass with the trigeminal nerve, give collaterals to the trigeminal motor n., and terminate in the muscles of mastication.n. tractus mesencephali nervi trigemini [NA];
Monakow's n. accessory cuneate n
motor nuclei nuclei of origin
motor n. of facial nerve facial n
n. moto´rius ner´vi trigem´ini [NA] motor n. of trigeminal nerve
motor n. of trigeminal nerve a group of motor neurons innervating the muscles of mastication (masseter, temporalis, internal and external pterygoid muscles) and the musculi tensor tympani and tensor veli palatini. The n. lies in the upper pontine tegmentum medial to the main sensory n. of the trigeminus.n. motorius nervi trigemini [NA], masticatory n., motor n. of trigeminus, n. masticatorius;
motor n. of trigeminus motor n. of trigeminal nerve
n. ner´vi abducen´tis [NA] abducens n
nu´clei ner´vi cochlea´ris nuclei cochleares
n. ner´vi facia´lis [NA] facial n
n. ner´vi hypoglos´si [NA] hypoglossal n
n. ner´vi oculomoto´rii [NA] oculomotor n
n. ner´vi trochlea´ris [NA] trochlear n
nu´clei ner´vi vestibulocochlea´ris [NA] vestibulocochlear nuclei
nu´clei nervo´rum crania´lium [NA] nuclei of cranial nerves
n. ni´ger substantia nigra
oculomotor n. the composite group of motor neurons innervating all of the external eye muscles except the musculus rectus lateralis and musculus obliquus superior, and including the musculus levator palpebrae superioris; the most rostral component of the n. is the Edinger-Westphal n. which innervates the musculi sphincter pupillae and ciliaris via the ciliary ganglion. The oculomotor n. lies in the rostral half of the midbrain, near the midline in the most ventral part of the central gray substance; fibers of the medial longitudinal fasciculus form its lateral borders.n. nervi oculomotorii [NA], n. of oculomotor nerve;
n. of oculomotor nerve oculomotor n
n. oliva´ris [NA] inferior olivary n
n. oliva´ris accesso´rius dorsa´lis [NA] dorsal accessory olivary n
n. oliva´ris accesso´rius media´lis [NA] medial accessory olivary n
Onuf's n. small somatic motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord at sacral 2 level which innervate the vesicorectal sphincters, that is, the external anal and the urethral sphincter; O.'s n. has been identified in the cat, dog, and humans.
nuclei of origin collections of motor neurons (forming a continuous column in the spinal cord, discontinuous in the medulla and pons) giving origin to the spinal and cranial motor nerves.nuclei originis [NA], motor nuclei;
nu´clei ori´ginis [NA] nuclei of origin
parabrachial nuclei the cell groups flanking the brachium conjunctivum at levels immediately caudal to the inferior colliculus; they serve as way-stations in the pathways ascending from the n. of solitary tract to the thalamus and hypothalamus, and receive afferent fibers from the hypothalamus and amygdaloid body.nuclei parabrachiales;
nuclei parabrachia´les parabrachial nuclei
n. paracentra´lis thal´ami paracentral n. of thalamus
paracentral n. of thalamus one of the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus, medial to the central lateral n.n. paracentralis thalami;
paraventricular n. a triangular group of large magnocellular neurons in the periventricular zone of the anterior half of the hypothalamus. The cells of the n. are similar to those of the supraoptic n.; the axons of about 20% of their number join in the formation of the supraopticohypophysial tract and are functionally associated with the posterior lobe of the hypophysis; they project fibers to the brainstem nuclei (dorsal motor n. and solitary n.) and to the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord at thoracic, lumbar, and spinal levels; similar descending autonomic fibers arise from the lateral and posterior hypothalamic nuclei.n. paraventricularis [NA], filiform n., n. filiformis;
n. paraventricula´ris [NA] paraventricular n
perihypoglossal nuclei nuclei found in the floor of the 4th ventricle in relation to the hypoglossal nucleus, includes the prepositus and intercalated nuclei and the n. of Roller.
Perlia's n. a small cell group located between the somatic cell columns of the oculomotor nuclei. Since it is placed between the groups of motor neurons innervating, respectively, the left and right medial rectus muscles, the n. is considered to possibly represent an integrating mechanism for ocular convergence.convergence n. of Perlia, Spitzka's n;
phenanthrene n. misnomer for tetracyclic steroid n.
phrenic n. a n. comprised of motor neurons located in medial areas of the ventral horn of the spinal cord from about C3 to C6; axons of neurons in this n. innervate the diaphragm.
pontine nuclei the massive gray matter filling the basilar pons. The nuclei are of fairly homogeneous architecture and project to the cortex of the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere by way of the middle cerebellar peduncle. Their main afferents come from the entire extent of the cerebral neocortex by way of the longitudinal pontine bundles (corticopontine fibers); thus, the pontine nuclei form a major way-station in the impulse conduction from the cerebral cortex of one hemisphere to the posterior lobe of the opposite cerebellum.nuclei pontis [NA], pontine gray matter;
nu´clei pon´tis [NA] pontine nuclei
pontis nervi trigeminalis n. See principal sensory n. of trigeminal nerve.
n. poste´rior hypothal´ami [NA] posterior hypothalamic n
posterior hypothalamic n. a large, periventricular hypothalamic n. located dorsal to the mamillary body, continuous with the central gray substance of the mesencephalon.n. posterior hypothalami [NA];
posterior periventricular n. arcuate n. (1)
n. preop´ticus latera´lis [NA] lateral preoptic n
n. preop´ticus media´lis [NA] medial preoptic n
prerubral n. the gray matter of field H2; See fields of Forel, under field.
pretectal n. group of cells, constituting several subnuclei, located rostral to the superior colliculus in the "pretectal" area; receive input from retinal ganglion cells (via the optic tract) and project bilaterally to the Edinger-Westphal n.; relay center for pupillary light reflex pathway.
principal sensory n. of trigeminal nerve the term commonly used to designate the nucleus pontis nervi trigeminalis [NA]; located in pons lateral to the motor trigeminal n.; receives primary sensory (touch and pressure) input via the trigeminal nerve, projects to ventral posteromedial n. of thalamus.n. sensorius principalis nervi trigemini [NA], n. sensorius superior nervi trigemini, principal sensory n. of the trigeminus;
principal sensory n. of the trigeminus principal sensory n. of trigeminal nerve
n. pulpo´sus [NA] the soft fibrocartilage central portion of the intervertebral disk; regarded as a derivative of the notochord.gelatinous n., n. gelatinosus, vertebral pulp;
pulvinar n. the large caudal portion of the lateral thalamic nuclear group; may be divided into oral, inferior, medial and lateral parts based on cytoarchitecture and connections; functionally related to the visual system.
n. pyramida´lis obsolete term for n. olivaris accessorius medialis.
pyrrole n. of porphyrins, a cyclic tetrapyrrole; four pyrrole groups joined into a ring structure by way of -CH= (methylidyne) bridges between the a (2) position of one pyrrole and the a´ (5) position of another pyrrole, the fourth pyrrole being joined to the first. See also porphin, porphyrin.
raphe nuclei collective term denoting a variety of unpaired nerve cell groups in and along the median plane of the mesencephalic and rhombencephalic tegmentum: the n. centralis tegmenti superior, and the n. raphes dorsalis, n. raphes pontis, n. raphes magnus, n. raphes pallidus, and n. raphes obscurus. These nuclei include neurons characterized by their containing the indolamine transmitter agent serotonin; their serotonin-carrying axons extend rostrally to the hypothalamus, septum, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus and include projections to brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord.nuclei raphes, superior central tegmental n;
nu´clei raph´es raphe nuclei
red n. a large, well defined, somewhat elongated cell mass, of reddish-gray hue in the fresh brain, located in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. The n. receives a massive projection from the contralateral half of the cerebellum by way of the superior cerebellar peduncle, and an additional projection from the ipsilateral motor cortex. Projections from the anterior interposed n. and motor cortex to the red nucleus are somatopically organized. Its efferent connections are with the contralateral rhombencephalic reticular formation and spinal cord by way of the rubrobulbar and rubrospinal tracts. Rubrospinal fibers have somatotopic origin.n. ruber [NA];
reduction n. a n. that degenerates in the cell during the changes incident to fertilization.
reproductive n. micronucleus (2)
reticular nuclei of the brainstem the vaguely delineated cell groups composing the gray matter of the reticular formation of the rhombencephalon and mesencephalon. In general, large-celled territories occupy the medial two-thirds of the reticular formation: gigantocellular n. of medulla oblongata, nuclei tegmenti pontis caudalis and oralis. Smaller groups of reticular nuclei are found laterally and in paramedian locations; lateral nuclei receive sensory collaterals and project medially; paramedian reticular nuclei largely project to the cerebellum. See also reticular formation.
n. reticula´ris thal´ami [NA] reticular n. of thalamus
reticular n. of thalamus a sheet of fairly large neurons covering the lateral, ventral, and rostral surfaces of the thalamus; its reticular appearance is caused by the numerous fascicles of the thalamic peduncles which traverse the n. The n. receives numerous fibers from the cerebral cortex but it has no cortical projection.n. reticularis thalami [NA];
rhombencephalic gustatory n. the rostral one-third of the n. of solitary tract, receiving afferents from the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves conveying impulses originating from the receptor cells of the taste buds.
Roller's n. 1. lateral n. of the accessory nerve; 2. a small bulbar n. lying immediately anterior to the hypoglossal n., considered one of the perihypoglossal nuclei.
roof n. fastigial n
n. ru´ber [NA] red n
n. salivato´rius infe´rior [NA] inferior salivatory n
n. salivato´rius supe´rior [NA] superior salivatory n
Schwalbe's n. See vestibular n.
secondary sensory nuclei terminal nuclei
segmentation n. 1. the compound n. in the impregnated ovum, formed by conjugation of the nuclei of the ovum and spermatozoon (female and male pronuclei); 2. the zygote nucleus after it commences the first cleavage division.
semilunar n. of Flechsig arcuate n. of thalamus
n. senso´rius principa´lis ner´vi trigem´ini [NA] principal sensory n. of trigeminal nerve
n. senso´rius supe´rior ner´vi trigem´ini principal sensory n. of trigeminal nerve
sensory nuclei a group of cell bodies that receive afferent (sensory) input from the periphery.
shadow n. a n. that has lost its pigment and staining properties.
sole nuclei an accumulation of skeletal muscle fiber nuclei at the myoneural junction.
n. of solitary tract a slender cell column extending sagittally through the dorsal part of the medulla oblongata, beneath the floor of the rhomboid fossa, immediately lateral to the limiting sulcus. It is the visceral sensory (visceral afferent) n. of the brainstem, receiving the afferent fibers of the vagus, glossopharyngeal, and facial nerves by way of the solitary tract. The caudal two-thirds of the n. processes impulses originating in the pharynx, larynx, intestinal and respiratory tracts, and heart and large blood vessels; its rostral one-third receives impulses from the taste buds and is known as the rhombencephalic gustatory n.n. tractus solitarii [NA];
somatic n. macronucleus (2)
somatic motor nuclei collective term indicating the motor nuclei innervating the tongue musculature (hypoglossal n.) and the extraocular eye muscles (abducens n., trochlear n., and oculomotor n.).
special visceral efferent nuclei branchiomotor nuclei
special visceral motor nuclei branchiomotor nuclei
sperm n. the head of the spermatozoon, which becomes spheroidal, after entering the ovum. See also pronucleus.
spherical n. globosus n
spinal n. of accessory nerve a slender column of motor neurons extending longitudinally through the central part of the ventral horn of the upper five segments of the spinal cord, giving origin to the spinal part of the accessory nerve.n. spinalis nervi accessorii [NA];
n. spina´lis ner´vi accesso´rii [NA] spinal n. of accessory nerve
spinal trigeminal n. the long sensory n. extending from the caudal border of the pontine sensory n. of the trigeminus down through the lateral region of the rhombencephalon into the upper three segments of the spinal cord's dorsal horn; it receives the fibers of the sensory root of the trigeminal nerve which descend along its lateral border as the spinal tract of trigeminal nerve.n. tractus spinalis nervi trigemini [NA], descending n. of the trigeminus, spinal n. of the trigeminus;
spinal n. of the trigeminus spinal trigeminal n
Spitzka's n. Perlia's n
Staderini's n. intercalated n
steroid n. tetracyclic steroid n
Stilling's n. thoracic n
subceruleus n. diffusely organized n. of noradrenergic cells located ventral to the n. (locus) ceruleus.
subthalamic n. a circumscript n., shaped like a biconvex lens, located in the ventral part of the subthalamus on the dorsal surface of the peduncular part of the internal capsule immediately rostral to the substantia nigra. The n. receives a massive topographic projection from the lateral segment of the globus pallidus, and a somatopically organized projection from the ipsilateral motor cortex; a smaller bundle of afferents from the centromedian n. of the thalamus terminate in the rostral part of the n. The subthalamic n. projects to both pallidal segments, to the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra, and in a small way to the ipsilateral pedunculopontine nucleus.n. subthalamicus [NA], corpus luysi, Luys' body, n. of Luys;
n. subthalam´icus [NA] subthalamic n
superior central tegmental n. raphe nuclei
superior olivary n. dorsal n. of trapezoid body
superior salivary n. superior salivatory n
superior salivatory n. a group of preganglionic parasympathetic motor neurons situated rostral and lateral to the inferior salivatory n.; it governs secretion of the lacrimal, sublingual, and submaxillary glands by way of the facial nerve and the sphenopalatine and submandibular ganglia.n. salivatorius superior [NA], superior salivary n;
superior vestibular n. n. vestibularis superior. See vestibular n.
n. suprachiasmatica small n. located dorsal to the optic chiasm; receives input from retina, influences hypothalamic neuroendocrine function; closely associated with regulation of circadian rhythmicity.
supraoptic n. supraoptic n. of hypothalamus
supraoptic n. of hypothalamus a large-celled neurosecretory n. in the hypothalamus, located over the lateral border of the optic tract, from which the supraopticohypophysial tract arises; its neurons produce and transport vasopressin released into the general circulation from the axon terminals in the supraopticohypophysial tract.n. supraopticus hypothalami [NA], supraoptic n;
n. supraop´ticus hypothal´ami [NA] supraoptic n. of hypothalamus
tectal n. fastigial n
n. tec´ti fastigial n
tegmental nuclei collective term for two small round cell groups in the caudal part of the midbrain (caudal pontine tegmental nucleus, n. tegmenti pontis caudalis and oral pontine tegmental nucleus, n. tegmenti pontis oralis), associated with the mamillary body by way of the mamillary peduncle and mamillotegmental tract.nuclei tegmenti [NA], Gudden's tegmental nuclei;
nu´clei tegmen´ti [NA] tegmental nuclei
terminal nuclei , nuclei termina´les collective term indicating those nerve cell groups in the rhombencephalon and spinal cord in which the afferent fibers of the spinal and cranial nerves terminate.nuclei terminationis [NA], secondary sensory nuclei;
nu´clei terminatio´nis [NA] terminal nuclei
tetracyclic steroid n. the group of four fused rings forming the framework or parent substance of the steroids.perhydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthrene, steroid n;
thalamic gustatory n. arcuate n. of thalamus
thoracic n. a column of large neurons located in the base of the posterior gray column of the spinal cord, extending from the first thoracic through the second lumbar segment; it gives rise to the dorsal spinocerebellar tract of the same side.n. thoracicus [NA], Clarke's column, Clarke's n., dorsal n., n. dorsalis, Stilling's column, Stilling's n;
n. thorac´icus [NA] thoracic n
n. trac´tus mesenceph´ali ner´vi trigem´ini [NA] mesencephalic n. of trigeminal nerve
n. trac´tus solita´rii (NTS) [NA] n. of solitary tract
n. trac´tus spina´lis ner´vi trigem´ini [NA] spinal trigeminal n
triangular n. alternative term for the medial vestibular n.
trochlear n. a group of motor neurons innervating the superior oblique muscle of the contralateral eye. The n. lies in the caudal half of the midbrain, behind the oculomotor n., in the most ventral part of the central gray substance, near the midline.n. nervi trochlearis [NA], n. of trochlear nerve;
n. of trochlear nerve trochlear n
trophic n. macronucleus (2)
tuberal nuclei two or three small, encapsulated, round or ovoid clusters of cells in the lateral hypothalamic area along the surface of the tuber cinereum; their connections and functional significance are unknown.nuclei tuberales [NA], lateral tuberal nuclei;
nu´clei tubera´les [NA] tuberal nuclei
ventral anterior n. of thalamus the most rostral of the subdivisions of the ventral n., receiving projections from the globus pallidus and projecting to the premotor and frontal cortex.n. ventralis anterior thalami;
ventral intermediate n. of thalamus the composite middle third of the ventral n. receiving in its various parts distinctive projections from the contralateral half of the cerebellum (by way of the superior cerebellar peduncle) and the ipsilateral globus pallidus; nearly all parts of the n. projects to the motor cortex.n. ventralis intermedius thalami [NA], n. ventralis lateralis, ventral lateral n. of thalamus;
n. ventra´lis ante´rior thal´ami ventral anterior n. of thalamus
n. ventra´lis cor´poris trapezoi´dei [NA] ventral n. of trapezoid body
n. ventra´lis interme´dius thal´ami [NA] ventral intermediate n. of thalamus
n. ventra´lis latera´lis ventral intermediate n. of thalamus
n. ventra´lis poste´rior interme´dius thal´ami intermediate part of the ventrobasal nuclear complex. See ventral posterior n. of thalamus.ventral posterior intermediate n. of thalamus;
n. ventra´lis poste´rior thal´ami ventral posterior n. of thalamus
n. ventra´lis posterolatera´lis thal´ami [NA] ventral posterolateral n. of thalamus
n. ventra´lis posteromedia´lis thal´ami [NA] ventral posteromedial n. of thalamus
n. ventra´lis thal´ami [NA] ventral n. of thalamus
ventral lateral n. of thalamus ventral intermediate n. of thalamus
ventral posterior intermediate n. of thalamus n. ventralis posterior intermedius thalami See ventral posterior n. of thalamus.
ventral posterior n. of thalamus the large posterior part of the ventral n. of the thalamus receiving the somatic sensory lemnisci (medial lemniscus, spinothalamic tract, trigeminal lemniscus) and the ascending gustatory (taste) lemniscus, and projecting in turn by way of the internal capsule to the cortex of the postcentral gyrus. The n. is somatotopically organized and subdivided into a ventral posterolateral n. of thalamus representing the leg, a ventral posterior intermediate n. of thalamus representing the arm, a ventral posteromedial n. of thalamus representing the face, and an arcuate n. of thalamus receiving the gustatory lemniscus.n. ventralis posterior thalami, ventrobasal n;
ventral posterolateral n. of thalamus , ventral posterior lateral n. of thalamus lateral part of the ventrobasal nuclear complex. See ventral posterior n. of thalamus.n. ventralis posterolateralis thalami [NA];
ventral posteromedial n. of thalamus , posterior medial n. of thalamus medial part of the ventrobasal nuclear complex. See ventral posterior n. of thalamus.n. ventralis posteromedialis thalami [NA];
ventral n. of thalamus a large, complex cell mass the external border of which forms the ventral and much of the lateral boundary, as well as the rostral border, of the thalamus; it can be subdivided into an anterior, intermediate, and posterior part.n. ventralis thalami [NA];
ventral tier thalamic nuclei collective term for nuclei in the ventral part of the lateral nuclear group, e.g., ventral anterior, lateral, posterolateral, and posteromedial nuclei and the medial and lateral geniculate bodies. The basoventral nuclear complex constitutes the caudal part of the ventral tier thalamic nuclei.
ventral n. of trapezoid body a cell group embedded among the fibers of the trapezoid body, the major decussation of the central auditory pathway, in the lower pons. The n. receives fibers from the contralateral cochlear nuclei and contributes fibers to the ascending auditory system or lateral lemniscus.n. ventralis corporis trapezoidei [NA];
ventrobasal n. ventral posterior n. of thalamus
ventromedial n. of hypothalamus a circumscript ovoid group of small neurons in the medial zone of the tuberal region of the hypothalamus. Bilateral destruction of this n. in the rat leads to severe obesity. It receives numerous fibers from the amygdala via the terminal stria; its efferent connections are obscure.n. ventromedialis hypothalami [NA];
n. ventromedia´lis hypothal´ami [NA] ventromedial n. of hypothalamus
vestibular n. one of a group of four main nuclei that includes: the lateral vestibular n. (Deiters' n.), medial vestibular n. (Schwalbe's n.), superior vestibular n. (Bechterew's n.), and inferior vestibular n., located in the lateral region of the hindbrain beneath the floor of the rhomboid fossa. They receive primary fibers of the vestibular nerve, are reciprocally connected with the flocculonodular lobe of the cerebellum, and project by way of the medial longitudinal fasciculus to the abducens, trochlear, and oculomotor nuclei and to the ventral horn of the spinal cord. The lateral vestibular n. projects to the ipsilateral ventral horn of the spinal cord by the vestibulospinal tract.n. vestibularis [NA];
n. vestibula´ris [NA] vestibular n
vestibulocochlear nuclei the combined cochlear and vestibular nuclei in the brainstem that receive the incoming fibers of the eighth cranial nerve. See vestibular n.nuclei nervi vestibulocochlearis [NA];
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