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antitoxin (an-te-tok´sin)

Antibody formed in response to antigenic poisonous substances of biologic origin, such as bacterial exotoxins (e.g., those elaborated by Clostridium tetani or Corynebacterium diphtheriae), phytotoxins, and zootoxins; in general usage, a. refers to whole, or globulin fraction of, serum from animals (usually horses) immunized by injections of the specific toxoid. A. neutralizes the pharmacologic effects of its specific toxin in vitro, and also in vivo if the toxin is not already fixed in the tissue cells. [anti- + G. toxikon, poison]
bivalent gas gangrene a. a. specific for the toxins of Clostridium perfringens and C. septicum.
bothropic a. a. specific for the venom of pit vipers of the genus Bothrops (Bothrophora) of the family Crotalidae.Bothrops a;
Bothrops a. bothropic a
botulinum a. botulism a
botulism a. a. specific for a toxin of one or another strain of Clostridium botulinum.botulinum a;
bovine a. a. prepared from cattle instead of horses, used in the treatment of persons who are sensitive to horse serum; the cattle are immunized against the toxin for which specific a. is desired.
Crotalus a. a. specific for venom of rattlesnakes (Crotalus species).
despeciated a. an antitoxic serum treated in an appropriate manner to alter the species-specific protein, so that a person sensitized to the animal protein is not likely to have a serious reaction when the a. is administered.
diphtheria a. a. specific for the toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
dysentery a. a. specific for the neurotoxin of Shigella dysenteriae.
gas gangrene a. a. specific for the toxin of one or more species of Clostridium that cause gaseous gangrene and associated toxemia, especially C. perfringens C. novyi, C. histolyticum, and commercially available preparations are usually polyvalent, i.e., contain a. for two or more species.pentavalent gas gangrene a;
normal a. serum that is capable of neutralizing an equivalent quantity of a normal toxin solution.
pentavalent gas gangrene a. gas gangrene a
plant a. a. specific for a phytotoxin.
scarlet fever a. a. specific for the erythrogenic toxin of strains of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.
staphylococcus a. a preparation from native serum containing antitoxic globulins or their derivatives that specifically neutralize the lethal, skin-necrosing, and hemolytic properties of the a-toxin of Staphylococcus aureus.
tetanus a. a. specific for the toxin of Clostridium tetani.
tetanus and gas gangrene a.'s a mixture of antibodies obtained from animals immunized against the toxins of Clostridium tetani, C. perfringens, and C. septicum.
tetanus-perfringens a. an a. prepared from animals immunized against the toxins of Clostridium tetani and C. perfringens (C. welchii).


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