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process (pros´es, pro´ses)
1. A method or mode of action used in the attainment of a certain result. A process; in anatomy, a projection or outgrowth. In anatomy, a projection or outgrowth.processus [NA]; 2. A method or mode of action used in the attainment of a certain result. 3. An advance, progress, or method as of a desease. See processus. 4. A pathologic condition or disease. 5. In dentistry, a series of operations that convert a wax pattern, such as that of a denture base, into a solid denture base of another material. See dental curing. [L. processus, an advance, progress, process, fr. pro-cedo, pp. -cessus, to go forward]
A.B.C. p. purification of water or deodorization of sewage by a mixture of alum, blood, and charcoal.
accessory p. a small apophysis at the posterior part of the base of the transverse process of each of the lumbar vertebrae.processus accessorius [NA], accessory tubercle;
acromial p. acromion
agene p. bleaching of flour with nitrogen trichloride (prohibited in the United States).
alar p. wing of crista galli
alveolar p. the projecting ridge on the inferior surface of the body of the maxilla containing the tooth sockets; the term is also applied to the superior aspect of the body of the mandible, containing the tooth sockets of the lower jaw.processus alveolaris [NA], alveolar body, alveolar bone (1), alveolar border (2), alveolar ridge, basal ridge (1), dental p;
anterior p. of malleus a slender spur running anteriorward from the neck of the malleus toward the petrotympanic fissure.processus anterior mallei [NA], Folli's p., follian p., long p. of malleus, processus gracilis, processus ravii, Rau's p., Ravius' p., slender p. of malleus;
apical p. the dendritic p. extending from the apex of a pyramidal cell of the cerebral cortex toward the surface.apical dendrite;
articular p. one of the small flat projections on the surfaces of the arches of the vertebrae on either side, at the point where the pedicles and laminae join, forming the zygapophysial joint surfaces; superior articular process, diapophysis; one of the anticular processes on the superior surface of the vertebral arch; inferior articular p., one of the articular p.'s on the inferior surface of the vertebral arch.processus articularis [NA], zygapophysis [NA];
ascending p. processus ascendens
auditory p. the roughened edge of the tympanic plate giving attachment to the cartilaginous portion of the external acoustic meatus.
axonal p. obsolete term for axon.
basilar p. basilar part of the occipital bone
basilar p. of occipital bone basilar part of the occipital bone
binary p. a random event with two exhaustive and mutually exclusive outcomes; a Bernoulli p.
Budde p. a method of milk sterilization; to the fresh milk, hydrogen peroxide is added in the proportion of 15 ml of a 3% solution to 1 liter of milk, and the mixture is heated to 51°or 52°C (124°F) for 3 hours, by which time the peroxide is decomposed and the nascent oxygen acts as an efficient germicide; the milk is then rapidly cooled and put into sealed bottles.
Burns' falciform p. superior horn of falciform margin of saphenous opening
calcaneal p. of cuboid bone the process projecting posteriorly from the plantar surface of the cuboid; it supports the anterior end of the calcaneus.processus calcaneus ossis cuboidei [NA];
caudate p. a narrow band of hepatic tissue connecting the caudate and right lobes of the liver posterior to the porta hepatis.processus caudatus [NA];
ciliary p. one of the radiating pigmented ridges, usually seventy in number, on the inner surface of the ciliary body, increasing in thickness as they advance from the orbiculus ciliaris to the external border of the iris; these, together with the folds (plicae) in the furrows between them, constitute the corona ciliaris.processus ciliaris [NA];
Civinini's p. pterygospinous p
clinoid p. one of three pairs of bony projections from the sphenoid bone: anterior clinoid p., the recurved posterior angle of the lesser wing; middle clinoid p., a little spur of bone on the body of the sphenoid, posterolateral to the tuberculum sellae; posterior clinoid p., a spur of bone at each superior angle of the dorsum sellae.processus clinoideus [NA], clinoid (2);
cochleariform p. processus cochleariformis
complex learning p.'s those p.'s that require the use of symbolic manipulations, as in reasoning.
condylar p. the articular process of the ramus of the mandible; it includes the head of the mandible, the neck of the mandible and pterygoid fovea.processus condylaris [NA], condyloid p., mandibular condyle;
condyloid p. condylar p
conoid p. conoid tubercle
coracoid p. a long curved projection from the neck of the scapula overhanging the glenoid cavity; it gives attachment to the short head of the biceps, the coracobrachialis, and the pectoralis minor muscles, and the conoid and coracoacromial ligaments.processus coracoideus [NA];
coronoid p. a sharp triangular projection from a bone; coronoid p. of the mandible, the triangular anterior process of the mandibular ramus, giving attachment to the temporal muscle; coronoid p. of the ulna, a bracket-like projection from the anterior portion of the proximal extremity of the ulna; its anterior surface gives attachment to the brachialis, its proximal surface enters into the formation of the trochlear notch.processus coronoideus [NA];
costal p. an apophysis extending laterally from the transverse process of a lumbar vertebra; it is the homologue of the rib.processus costalis [NA];
dendritic p. dendrite (1)
dental p. alveolar p
ensiform p. xiphoid p
ethmoidal p. a projection of the inferior concha, situated behind the lacrimal process and articulating with the uncinate process of the ethmoid.processus ethmoidalis [NA];
falciform p. a continuation of the inner border of the sacrotuberous ligament upward and forward on the inner aspect of the ramus of the ischium.processus falciformis [NA], falciform ligament, ligamentum falciforme;
follian p. anterior p. of malleus
Folli's p. anterior p. of malleus
foot p. pedicel
frontal p. of maxilla the upward extension from the body of the maxilla, which articulates with the frontal bone.nasal p., processus frontalis maxillae;
frontal p. of zygomatic bone the p. of the zygomatic bone which extends upward to form the lateral margin of the orbit and articulates with the frontal bone and greater wing of the sphenoid bone.frontosphenoidal p., processus frontalis ossis zygomatici;
frontonasal p. frontonasal prominence
frontosphenoidal p. frontal p. of zygomatic bone
funicular p. the tunica vaginalis surrounding the spermatic cord.
globular p. obsolete term for intermaxillary segment.
hamular p. of lacrimal bone lacrimal hamulus
hamular p. of sphenoid bone pterygoid hamulus
head p. the primordium for the notochord. See also notochordal p.
intrajugular p. a small pointed process of bone extending from the middle of the jugular notch in both the occipital and the temporal bones, the two being joined by a ligament and dividing the jugular foramen into two portions.processus intrajugularis [NA];
jugular p. a short process jutting out from the posterior part of the condyle of the occipital bone, its anterior border forming the posterior boundary of the jugular foramen.processus jugularis [NA];
lacrimal p. a projection from the anterior edge of the inferior concha which articulates with the lower border of the lacrimal bone.processus lacrimalis [NA];
lateral p. of calcaneal tuberosity the lateral projection from the posterior part of the calcaneus.processus lateralis tuberis calcanei [NA];
lateral p. of malleus a short projection from the base of the manubrium of the malleus, attached firmly to the drum membrane.processus lateralis mallei [NA], processus brevis, short p. of malleus, tuberculum mallei;
lateral nasal p. lateral nasal prominence
lateral p. of talus a projection on the lateral side of the talus below the malleolar articular surface.processus lateralis tali [NA];
Lenhossék's p.'s short p.'s ("aborted axons") possessed by some ganglion cells.
lenticular p. of incus a knob at the tip of the long limb of the incus which articulates with the stapes.processus lenticularis incudis [NA], lenticular apophysis, lenticular bone, orbicular bone, orbicular p., orbiculare, os orbiculare, os sylvii;
long p. of malleus anterior p. of malleus
malar p. zygomatic p. of maxilla
mamillary p. a small apophysis or tubercle on the dorsal margin of the superior articular process of each of the lumbar vertebrae and usually of the twelfth thoracic vertebra.processus mamillaris [NA], mamillary tubercle, metapophysis;
mandibular p. mandibular arch
Markov p. a stochastic p. such that the conditional probability distribution for the state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
mastoid p. the nipple-like projection of the petrous part of the temporal bone.processus mastoideus [NA], mastoid bone, temporal apophysis;
maxillary p. a thin plate of irregular form projecting from the middle of the upper border of the inferior concha, articulating with the maxilla bone and partly closing the orifice of the maxillary sinus.processus maxillaris [NA];
maxillary p. of embryo the part of the first pharyngeal arch that lies cranial to the stomodeum and then develops into the upper jaw.
medial p. of calcaneal tuberosity the medial projection from the posterior part of the calcaneus.processus medialis tuberis calcanei [NA];
medial nasal p. medial nasal prominence
mental p. mental protuberance
muscular p. of arytenoid cartilage the blunt lateral projection of the arytenoid cartilage giving attachment to the lateral and posterior cricoarytenoid muscles of the larynx.processus muscularis cartilaginis arytenoidei [NA];
nasal p. frontal p. of maxilla
notochordal p. in the embryo, a midline column of cells that migrate forward from the primitive node to form the notochord. See also head p.
odontoblastic p. the extension of the odontoblast which lies within the dentinal tubule; application of stimuli to dentin may cause aspiration of odontoblast contents into the p.
odontoid p. dens (2)
odontoid p. of epistropheus dens (2)
olecranon p. olecranon
orbicular p. lenticular p. of incus
orbital p. the anterior and larger of the two processes at the upper extremity of the vertical plate of the palatine bone, articulating with the maxilla, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones.processus orbitalis [NA];
packing p. the method of placing denture base material in a flask for processing.
palatine p. in the embryo, medially directed shelves from the oral surface of the maxillae; they develop into the secondary palate after midline fusion.processus palatinus [NA];
papillary p. the left lower angle of the caudate lobe of the liver, opposite the caudate process.processus papillaris [NA];
paramastoid p. an occasional process of bone extending downward from the jugular process of the occipital bone in humans.processus paramastoideus [NA], paroccipital p;
paroccipital p. paramastoid p
posterior p. of septal cartilage the tapering extension of the septal cartilage that lies between the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and the vomer.processus posterior cartilaginis septi nasi [NA], processus sphenoidalis cartilaginis septi nasi, sphenoid p. of septal cartilage;
posterior p. of talus a projection of the talus bearing medial and lateral tubercles; it is posterior and inferior to the trochlea.processus posterior tali [NA], Stieda's p;
primary p. in psychoanalysis, the mental p. directly related to the functions of the primitive life forces associated with the id and characteristic of unconscious mental activity; marked by unorganized, illogical thinking and by the tendency to seek immediate discharge and gratification of instinctual demands. Cf. secondary p.
progressive p.'s p.'s that continue after they no longer serve the needs of the organism, and after cessation of the stimulus that evoked the p.
pterygoid p. a long process extending downward from the junction of the body and great wing of the sphenoid bone on either side; it is formed of two plates (lateral and medial), united anteriorly but separated below to form the pterygoid notch; the pterygoid fossa is formed by the divergence of these two plates posteriorly.processus pterygoideus [NA], os pterygoideum;
pterygospinous p. a sharp projection from the posterior edge of the lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone.processus pterygospinosus [NA], Civinini's p;
pyramidal p. the portion of the palatine bone passing lateral and posterior from the angle formed by the vertical and horizontal plates.processus pyramidalis [NA];
Rau's p. anterior p. of malleus
Ravius' p. anterior p. of malleus
retromandibular p. of parotid gland that portion of the parotid salivary gland that is located behind the mandible and occupies the space between the ramus of the mandible and the mastoid process extending as far medially as the pharyngeal wall.processus retromandibularis glandulae parotidis, processus retromandibularis;
secondary p. in psychoanalysis, the mental p. directly related to the learned and acquired functions of the ego and characteristic of conscious and preconscious mental activities; marked by logical thinking and by the tendency to delay gratification by regulation of the discharge of instinctual demands. Cf. primary p.
sheath p. of sphenoid bone vaginal p. of sphenoid bone
short p. of malleus lateral p. of malleus
slender p. of malleus anterior p. of malleus
sphenoid p. sphenoid p. of palatine bone
sphenoid p. of palatine bone the posterior and smaller of the two processes at the extremity of the vertical plate of the palatine bone; processus sphenoidalis cartilaginis septi nasi, p. posterior cartilaginis septi nasi.processus sphenoidalis [NA], sphenoid p;
sphenoid p. of septal cartilage posterior p. of septal cartilage
spinous p. 1. the dorsal projection from the center of a vertebral arch; 2. sphenoidal spine
spinous p. of tibia intercondylar eminence
Stieda's p. posterior p. of talus
stochastic p. a p. that incorporates some element of randomness. [G. stochastikos, pertaining to guessing, fr. stochazomai, to guess]
styloid p. of fibula apex of head of fibula
styloid p. of radius a thick, pointed, palpable projection on the lateral side of the distal extremity of the radius.processus styloideus radii [NA];
styloid p. of temporal bone a slender pointed projection running downward and slightly forward from the base of the inferior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone where it joins the tympanic portion; it gives attachment to the styloglossus, stylohyoid, and stylopharyngeus muscles and the stylohyoid and stylomandibular ligaments.processus styloideus ossis temporalis [NA];
styloid p. of third metacarpal bone a pointed projection from the dorsolateral angle of the base of the third metacarpal bone; it sometimes exists as a separate ossicle.processus styloideus ossis metacarpalis III [NA];
styloid p. of ulna a cylindrical, pointed palpable projection from the medial and posterior aspect of the head of the ulna, to the tip of which is attached the ulnar collateral ligament of the wrist.processus styloideus ulnae [NA];
superior articular p. of sacrum the large process on each side of the sacrum posteriorly that articulates with the corresponding inferior articular process of the fifth lumbar vertebra.processus articularis superior ossis sacri [NA];
supracondylar p. an occasional spine projecting from the anteromedial surface of the humerus about 5 cm above the medial epicondyle to which it is joined by a fibrous band. The supracondylar foramen thus formed transmits the brachial artery and median nerve.processus supraepicondylaris humeri [NA], supraepicondylar p;
supraepicondylar p. supracondylar p
temporal p. the posterior projection of the zygomatic bone articulating with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone to form the zygomatic arch.processus temporalis [NA];
Tomes' p.'s p.'s of the enamel cells.
transverse p. a bony protrusion on either side of the arch of a vertebra, from the junction of the lamina and pedicle, which functions as a lever for attached muscles.processus transversus [NA];
trochlear p. peroneal trochlea of calcaneus
uncinate p. of ethmoid bone a sickle-shaped process of bone on the medial wall of the ethmoidal labyrinth below the middle concha; it articulates with the ethmoidal process of the inferior concha and partly closes the orifice of the maxillary sinus.processus uncinatus ossis ethmoidalis [NA];
uncinate p. of pancreas a portion of the head of the pancreas that hooks around posterior to the superior mesenteric vessels, sometimes into the "nutcracker" formed by the superior mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta.processus uncinatus pancreatis [NA], lesser pancreas, pancreas minus, small pancreas, uncinate pancreas, unciform pancreas, Willis' pancreas, Winslow's pancreas;
vaginal p. sheath of styloid process
vaginal p. of peritoneum processus vaginalis of peritoneum
vaginal p. of sphenoid bone a thin lamina of bone that extends medially under the body of the sphenoid bone from the medial lamina of the pterygoid process; it articulates with the vomer and the palatine bone.processus vaginalis ossis sphenoidalis [NA], sheath p. of sphenoid bone;
vaginal p. of testis processus vaginalis of peritoneum
vermiform p. vermiform appendix
vocal p. vocal p. of arytenoid cartilage
vocal p. of arytenoid cartilage the lower end of the anterior margin of the arytenoid cartilage to which the vocal cord is attached.processus vocalis cartilaginis arytenoidei [NA], vocal p;
xiphoid p. the cartilage at the lower end of the sternum.processus xiphoideus [NA], ensiform p., ensisternum, metasternum, mucro sterni, xiphisternum, xiphoid cartilage;
zygomatic p. of frontal bone the massive projection of the frontal bone that joins the zygomatic bone to form the lateral margin of the orbit.processus zygomaticus ossis frontalis;
zygomatic p. of maxilla the rough projection from the maxilla that articulates with the zygomatic bone.malar p., processus zygomaticus maxillae;
zygomatic p. of temporal bone the anterior process of the temporal bone that articulates with the temporal process of the zygomatic bone to form the zygomatic arch.processus zygomaticus ossis temporalis;
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