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psychiatry (sI-kI´a-tre)

1. The medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. 2. The diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. For some types of p. not listed below, see also subentries under therapy, psychotherapy, psychoanalysis.psychiatrics; [psych- + G. iatreia, medical treatment]
analytic p. psychoanalytic p
biological p. a branch of p. that emphasizes molecular, genetic, and pharmacologic approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.
community p. p. focusing on the detection, prevention, early treatment, and rehabilitation of individuals with emotional disorders and social deviance as they develop in the community rather than as encountered one-on-one, in private practice, or at larger centralized psychiatric facilities; particular emphasis is placed on the social-interpersonal-environmental factors that contribute to mental illness.
contractual p. psychiatric intervention voluntarily assumed by the patient, who is prompted by his personal difficulties or suffering and who retains control over his participation with the psychiatrist.
cross-cultural p. a field of p. with interest in the study of psychological and psychiatric phenomena as differentially expressed in the cultures of different countries.
descriptive p. that aspect of the practice of psychiatry that deals with the diagnosis of mental disorders.
dynamic p. psychoanalytic p
existential p. existential psychotherapy
forensic p. , legal p. the application of p. in courts of law, e.g., in determinations for commitment, competency, fitness to stand trial, responsibility for crime.
industrial p. the application of the principles of p. to problems in business and industry.
orthomolecular p. an approach to p. that focuses on the use of megavitamins and nutrition in the treatment of such mental illnesses as the schizophrenic disorders.
psychoanalytic p. psychiatric theory and practice emphasizing the principles of psychoanalysis.analytic p., dynamic p;
social p. an approach to psychiatric theory and practice emphasizing the cultural and sociological aspects of mental disorder and treatment; the application of p. to social problems. See also community p.


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