respiration

respiration (res-pi-ra´shun)

1. A fundamental process of life, characteristic of both plants and animals, in which oxygen is used to oxidize organic fuel molecules, providing a source of energy as well as carbon dioxide and water. In green plants, photosynthesis is not considered r. 2. ventilation (2) [L. respiratio, fr. re-spiro, pp. -atus, to exhale, breathe]
abdominal r. breathing effected mainly by the action of the diaphragm.
aerobic r. a form of r. in which molecular oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide and water are produced.
amphoric r. a sound like that made by blowing across the mouth of a bottle, heard on auscultation in some cases in which a large pulmonary cavity exists, or occasionally in pneumothorax.
anaerobic r. a form of r. in which molecular oxygen is not consumed; e.g., nitrate r., sulfate r.
artificial r. artificial ventilation
assisted r. assisted ventilation
Biot's r. abrupt, irregular alternating periods of apnea with constant rate and depth of breathing, as that resulting from lesions due to increased intracranial pressure.ataxic breathing, Biot's breathing, respiratory ataxia;
Biot's r. completely irregular breathing pattern, with continually variable rate and depth of breathing; results from lesions in the respiratory centers in the brainstem, extending from the dorsomedial medulla caudally to the obex.
bronchial r. a tubular blowing sound caused by the passage of air through a bronchus in an area of consolidated lung tissue.
bronchovesicular r. combined bronchial and vesicular r.
cavernous r. a hollow reverberating sound heard on auscultation over a cavity in the lung.
Cheyne-Stokes r. the pattern of breathing with gradual increase in depth and sometimes in rate to a maximum, followed by a decrease resulting in apnea; the cycles ordinarily are 30 seconds to 2 minutes in duration, with 5 to 30 seconds of apnea; seen with bilateral deep febrile hemisphere lesions, with metabolic encephalopathy and, characteristically in coma from affection of the nervous centers of respiration.
cogwheel r. the inspiratory sound being broken into two or three by silent intervals.interrupted r., jerky r;
controlled r. controlled ventilation
costal r. thoracic r
diffusion r. maintenance of oxygenation during apnea by intratracheal insufflation of oxygen at high flow rates.apneic oxygenation;
electrophrenic r. the rhythmical electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve by an electrode applied to the skin at the motor points of the phrenic nerve; it is used in paralysis of the respiratory center resulting from acute bulbar poliomyelitis.
external r. the exchange of respiratory gases in the lungs as distinguished from internal or tissue r.
forced r. voluntary hyperventilation.
internal r. tissue r
interrupted r. cogwheel r
jerky r. cogwheel r
Kussmaul r. deep, rapid r. characteristic of diabetic or other causes of acidosis.Kussmaul-Kien r;
Kussmaul-Kien r. Kussmaul r
labored r. difficult, usually deep, breathing in patients with cardiac or pulmonary disease or disease affecting nervous system control of ventilation.
mouth-to-mouth r. a method of artificial ventilation involving an overlap of the patient's mouth (and nose in small children) with the operator's mouth to inflate the patient's lungs by blowing, followed by an unassisted expiratory phase brought about by elastic recoil of the patient's chest and lungs; repeated 12 to 16 times a minute; where the nose is not covered by the operator's mouth, the nostrils must be closed by pinching.
nitrate r. the process of r. used by some anaerobic organisms, in which nitrate rather than molecular oxygen is used to oxidize organic molecules to obtain energy.
paradoxical r. deflation of the lung during inspiration and inflation of the lung during the phase of expiration; seen in the lung on the side of an open pneumothorax.
puerile r. an exaggeration of the normal respiratory sounds, heard in children and in adults after exertion.
stertorous r. harsh, noisy breathing usually heard in an comatous patient.stertorous breathing;
sulfate r. the process of r. used by some anaerobic organisms, in which sulfate rather than molecular oxygen is used to oxidize organic molecules to obtain energy.
thoracic r. r. effected chiefly by the action of the intercostal and other muscles that raise the ribs, causing expansion of the chest.costal r;
tissue r. the interchange of gases between the blood and the tissues.internal r;
tubular r. high-pitched bronchial r.
vesicular r. the respiratory murmur heard on auscultating over the normal lung.respiratory murmur, vesicular murmur;
vesiculocavernous r. cavernous r., due to the presence of a cavity, mingled with the vesicular murmur of the surrounding normal lung tissue.

 

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