root

root (rut)

1. The primary or beginning portion of any part, as of a nerve at its origin from the brainstem or spinal cord. 2. r. of tooth 3. The descending underground portion of a plant; it absorbs water and nutrients, provides support, and stores nutrients. For r.'s of pharmacological significance not listed below, see specific names. [A.S. rot]
anatomical r. that portion of a tooth extending from the cervical line to its apical extremity.
anterior r. ventral r
clinical r. that portion of a tooth embedded in the investing structures; the portion of a tooth not visible in the oral cavity.radix clinica [NA];
cochlear r. of vestibulocochlear nerve cochlear r. of VIII nerve
cochlear r. of VIII nerve one of the components of the vestibulocochlear nerve; it is made up of the central processes of the bipolar neurons which compose the spiral (cochlear) ganglion in the spiral canal of the modiolus of the bony cochlea; the cochlear r. enters the cranial cavity by passing in fascicles through the spiral foraminous tract at the bottom of the internal auditory meatus; it enters the brainstem through the pontomedullary groove, closely adhering to the caudoventral aspect of the vestibular r., and distributes its fibers to the ventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei in the floor of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle.radix cochlearis [NA], cochlear r. of vestibulocochlear nerve, inferior r. of vestibulocochlear nerve, radix inferior nervi vestibulocochlearis;
cranial r.'s cranial r. of accessory nerve
cranial r. of accessory nerve the r.'s of the accessory nerve which arise from the medulla; the nerve fibers of the cranial r. join the intracranial portion of the vagus nerve and are distributed to the pharyngeal plexus, providing the motor innervation of the soft palate (except the tensor veli palati) and the pharynx.pars vagalis nervi accessorii [NA], radices craniales [NA], accessory portion of spinal accessory nerve, cranial r.'s, vagal part of accessory nerve, vagal part;
Culver's r. leptandra
dorsal r. the sensory root of a spinal nerve, having a dorsal r. ganglion containing the nerve cell bodies of the fibers conveyed by the root in its distal end.radix posterior [NA], radix sensoria [NA], posterior r., radix dorsalis;
facial r. nerve of pterygoid canal
r. of facial nerve fibers running from the facial motor nucleus upward to the facial colliculus where they curve around the abducens nucleus and then pass peripherally between the superior olive and sensory nucleus of the trigeminal, to emerge as the facial nerve from the pontomedullary groove.radix nervi facialis;
r. of foot tarsus
hair r. the part of a hair that is embedded in the hair follicle, its lower succulent extremity capping the dermal papilla pili in the deep bulbous portion of the follicle.radix pili;
inferior r. of ansa cervicalis fibers from the second and third cervical nerves that pass forward and downward along the internal jugular vein; they contribute to the ansa cervicalis and innervate the infrahyoid muscles.descendens cervicalis, radix inferior ansae cervicalis;
inferior r. of vestibulocochlear nerve cochlear r. of VIII nerve
lateral r. of median nerve the part of the median nerve arising from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus.radix lateralis nervi mediani [NA];
lateral r. of optic tract the larger division of the posterior end of the optic tract that terminates in the lateral geniculate body.radix lateralis tractus optici [NA];
long r. of ciliary ganglion sensory r. of ciliary ganglion
r. of lung all the structures entering or leaving the lung at the hilum, forming a pedicle invested with the pleura; includes the bronchi, pulmonary artery and veins, bronchial arteries and veins, lymphatics, and nerves.radix pulmonis [NA];
May apple r. podophyllum resin
medial r. of median nerve the part of the median nerve coming from the medial cord of the brachial plexus.radix medialis nervi mediani [NA];
medial r. of optic tract the smaller division of the posterior end of the optic tract that disappears under the medial geniculate body.radix medialis tractus optici [NA];
r. of mesentry the origin of the mesentery of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum) from the posterior parietal peritoneum; about 9 inches (23 cm.) in length, it extends from the duodenojejunal flexure (just to the left of the midline at the L2 vertebral level) to the ileocecal junction (iliac fossa).radix mesenterii [NA];
motor r. ventral r
motor r. of ciliary ganglion parasympathetic r. of ciliary ganglion
motor r.'s of submandibular ganglion ganglionic branches of lingual nerve, under branch
motor r. of trigeminal nerve the smaller root of the trigeminal nerve, composed of fibers originating from the trigeminal motor nucleus and emerging from the pons medial to the much larger sensory root, to join the mandibular nerve; it carries motor and proprioceptive fibers to the muscles derived from the first bronchial (mandibular) arch, including the four muscles of mastication, plus the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, and the tensores tympani and veli palati.radix motoria nervi trigemini [NA], masticator nerve, portio minor nervi trigemini;
r. of nail the proximal end of the nail, concealed under a fold of skin.radix unguis [NA];
nasociliary r. sensory r. of ciliary ganglion
nerve r. one of the two bundles of nerve fibers (dorsal and ventral r.'s) emerging from the spinal cord that join to form a single segmental (mixed) spinal nerve; some of the cranial nerves are similarly formed by the union of two r.'s, in particular the fifth or trigeminal nerve; in the case of the eighth cranial (vestibulocochlear) nerve, each of its two components (vestibular r. and cochlear r.) is referred to as a root even though they do not join each other and their central connections are distinctive; conjoined nerve r. , two adjacent nerve r.'s with the same common origin from the dura mater.
r. of nose the upper least protruding portion of the external nose situated between the two orbits.radix nasi [NA];
oculomotor r. of ciliary ganglion parasympathetic r. of ciliary ganglion
olfactory r.'s olfactory striae, under stria
r.'s of olfactory tract, lateral and medial the two fiber bands that form the caudal continuation of the olfactory tract which, upon diverging, enclose the olfactory tubercle.
parasympathetic r. of ciliary ganglion a branch of the oculomotor nerve supplying parasympathetic preganglionic nerve fibers to the ciliary ganglion.radix parasympathica ganglii ciliaris [NA], radix oculomotoria ganglii ciliaris [NA], motor r. of ciliary ganglion, oculomotor r. of ciliary ganglion, radix brevis ganglii ciliaris, short r. of ciliary ganglion;
r. of penis the proximal attached part of the penis, including the two crura and the bulb.radix penis [NA];
posterior r. dorsal r
sensory r. of ciliary ganglion sensory fibers passing from the eyeball through the ciliary ganglion to their cell bodies in the trigeminal ganglion via the nasociliary nerve.radix sensoria ganglii ciliaris [NA], ramus communicans nervi nasociliaris cum ganglio ciliari [NA], radix nasociliaris [NA], long r. of ciliary ganglion, nasociliary r., radix longa ganglii ciliaris;
sensory r. of pterygopalatine ganglion ganglionic branches of maxillary nerve, under branch
sensory r. of trigeminal nerve the large sensory root of the trigeminal (or fifth cranial) nerve, extending from the semilunar ganglion into the pons through the middle cerebellar peduncle or brachium pontis, immediately lateral to the small motor r.radix sensoria nervi trigemini [NA], portio major nervi trigemini;
short r. of ciliary ganglion parasympathetic r. of ciliary ganglion
spinal r. of accessory nerve originates from the upper five or six cervical spinal segments, emerges from the lateral surface of the spinal cord and ascends through the foramen magnum to join the cranial root.radices spinales nervi accessorii [NA], ramus externus nervi accessorii [NA], pars spinalis nervi accessorii, spinal part of accessory nerve;
superior r. of ansa cervicalis the fibers that arise from the first and second cervical nerves, accompany the hypoglossal nerve, then branch off to meet the inferior root in the ansa cervicalis; they innervate the infrahyoid muscles.descendens hypoglossi, descending branch of hypoglossal nerve, radix superior ansae cervicalis;
superior r. of vestibulocochlear nerve vestibular r
sympathetic r. of ciliary ganglion postganglionic fibers,having cell bodies in the superior cervical ganglion, branching from the carotid plexus passing through the ciliary ganglion without synapse to reach the eyeball.radix sympathica ganglii ciliaris [NA];
r. of tongue the posterior attached portion of the tongue.radix linguae [NA], base of tongue;
r. of tooth that part of a tooth below the neck, covered by cementum rather than enamel, and attached by the periodontal ligament to the alveolar bone.radix dentis [NA], radix (1) [NA], root (2);
r.'s of trigeminal nerve collective term for the sensory r. of trigeminal nerve and motor r. of trigeminal nerve.radices nervi trigemini;
tuberous r. a r. that is swollen for food storage; tuberous primary r.'s occur in aconite, beet, and carrot; tuberous secondary r.'s occur in plants of the Umbelliferae; and tuberous adventitious roots occur in jalap and sweet potato.
ventral r. the motor root of a spinal nerve.radix anterior [NA], radix motoria [NA], anterior r., motor r., radix ventralis;
vestibular r. radix vestibularis [NA], radix superior nervi vestibulocochlearis, superior r. of vestibulocochlear nerve, vestibular r. of vestibulocochlear nerve;
vestibular r. of vestibulocochlear nerve vestibular r

 

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