shock (shok)

1. A sudden physical or mental disturbance. 2. A state of profound mental and physical depression consequent upon severe physical injury or an emotional disturbance. 3. The abnormally palpable impact, appreciated by a hand on the chest wall, of an accentuated heart sound. See diastolic s., systolic s. [Fr. choc, fr. Germanic]
anaphylactic s.a severe, often fatal form of s. characterized by smooth muscle contraction and capillary dilation initiated by cytotropic (IgE class) antibodies; typically an antibody-associated phenomenon that does not occur in sensitivities of the delayed kind (type IV allergic reaction). See also anaphylaxis, serum sickness.
anaphylactoid s.a reaction that is similar to anaphylactic s., but which does not require the incubation period characteristic of induced sensitivity (anaphylaxis); it is unrelated to antigen-antibody reactions.anaphylactoid crisis (1) , pseudoanaphylactic s;
anesthetic s.s. produced by the administration of anesthetic drug(s), usually in relative overdosage.
break s.the s. produced by breaking a constant current passing through the body.
cardiac s.cardiogenic s
cardiogenic s.s. resulting from decline in cardiac output secondary to serious heart disease, usually myocardial infarction.cardiac s;
chronic s.the state of peripheral circulatory insufficiency developing in elderly patients with a debilitating disease, e.g., carcinoma; a subnormal blood volume makes the patient susceptible to hemorrhagic s. as a result of even a moderate blood loss such as may occur during an operation.
counter-s. See countershock.
cultural s.a form of stress associated with the beginning of an individual's assimilation into a new culture vastly different from that in which he or she was raised.
declamping s.declamping phenomenon
deferred s., delayed s.a state of s. coming on at a considerable interval after the receipt of the injury.
delirious s.erethistic s
diastolic s.the abnormally palpable impact, appreciated by a hand on the chest wall, of an accentuated third heart sound.
electric s.a sudden violent impression caused by the passage of a current of electricity through any portion of the body.
endotoxin s.s. induced by release of endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria, especially by Escherichia coli.
erethistic s.traumatic or toxic delirium following s.delirious s;
hemorrhagic s.hypovolemic s. resulting from acute hemorrhage, characterized by hypotension, tachycardia, pale, cold, and clammy skin, and oliguria.
histamine s.the s. state produced in animals by the injection of histamine; characterized by bronchiolar spasm in the guinea pig and constriction of hepatic veins in the dog.
hypovolemic s.s. caused by a reduction in volume of blood, as from hemorrhage or dehydration.
insulin s.severe hypoglycemia produced by administration of insulin, manifested by sweating, tremor, anxiety, vertigo, and diplopia, followed by delirium, convulsions, and collapse.wet s;
irreversible s.s. that has progressed beyond the stage when it will respond to transfusion or other form of treatment, and recovery is impossible.
nitroid s.a syndrome resembling that produced by the administration of a large dose of a nitrite, sometimes caused by a too rapid intravenous injection of arsphenamine or some other drug; See nitritoid reaction.
oligemic s.s. associated with pronounced fall in blood volume, sometimes resulting from increased permeability of blood vessels.
osmotic s.a sudden change in the osmotic pressure to which a cell is subjected, usually in order to cause it to lyse and lose its contents.
primary s.s. mainly nervous in nature, from pain, anxiety, etc., which ensues almost immediately upon the receipt of a severe injury.
protein s.the systemic reaction following the parenteral administration of a protein.
pseudoanaphylactic s.anaphylactoid s
reversible s.s. that will respond to treatment and from which recovery is possible.
septic s. 1. s. associated with sepsis, usually associated with abdominal and pelvic infection complicating trauma or operations; 2. s. associated with septicemia caused by Gram-negative bacteria.
serum s.anaphylactic or anaphylactoid s. caused by the injection of antitoxic or other foreign serum.
shell s.battle fatigue
spinal s.transient depression or abolition of reflex activity below the level of an acute spinal cord injury or transection.
systolic s.the abnormally palpable impact, appreciated by a hand on the chest wall, of an accentuated first heart sound.
toxic s. See toxic shock syndrome.
vasogenic s.s. resulting from depressed activity of the higher vasomotor centers in the brain stem and the medulla, producing vasodilation without loss of fluid so that the container is disproportionately large. In oligemic s., blood volume is reduced; in both, return of venous blood is inadequate.
wet s.insulin s


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