sign (sIn)

1. Any abnormality indicative of disease, discoverable on examination of the patient; an objective symptom of disease, in contrast to a symptom which is a subjective s. of disease. 2. An abbreviation or symbol. 3. In psychology, any object or artifact (stimulus) that represents a specific thing or conveys a specific idea to the person who perceives it. [L. signum, mark]
Aaron's acute appendicitis, a referred pain or feeling of distress in the epigastrium or precordial region on continuous firm pressure over McBurney's point.
Abadie's s. of tabes dorsalisinsensibility to pressure over the tendo achillis.
Abrahams' obsolete s.: 1. rales and other adventitious sounds, changes in the respiratory murmurs, and increase in the whispered sound can be heard on auscultation over the acromial end of the clavicle some time before they become audible at the apex; heard primarily in pulmonary tuberculosis affecting the apical portion of the lung; 2. a dull-flat note, i.e., one between the normal dullness at the right apex and absolute flatness, heard on percussion in that region, indicating progress from incipient to advanced tuberculosis.
accessory s.a finding frequently but not consistently present in a disease.assident s;
Allis' fracture of the neck of the femur, the trochanter rides up, relaxing the fascia lata, so that the finger can be sunk deeply between the great trochanter and the iliac crest.
Amoss' painful flexion of the spine, it is necessary to support a sitting position by extending the arms behind the torso with the weight placed on the hands.
Anghelescu's vertebral tuberculosis, painful or impossible flexion of the spine when the patient attempts to rest weight on the heels and occiput.
antecedent s.prodromic s
assident s.accessory s
Auenbrugger's epigastric prominence seen in cases of marked pericardial effusion.
Aufrecht's obsolete s.: diminished breath sounds in the trachea just above the jugular notch, in cases of stenosis.
Babinski's s. 1. extension of the great toe and abduction of the other toes instead of the normal flexion reflex to plantar stimulation, considered indicative of pyramidal tract involvement ("positive" Babinski);Babinski reflex, Babinski's phenomenon, great-toe reflex, paradoxical extensor reflex, toe phenomenon; 2. in hemiplegia, weakness of the platysma muscle on the affected side, as is evident in such actions as blowing or opening the mouth; 3. when the patient is lying upon his back, with arms crossed on the front of his chest, and attempts to assume the sitting posture, the thigh on the side of an organic paralysis is flexed and the heel raised, whereas the limb on the sound side remains flat; 4. in hemiplegia, the forearm on the affected side turns to a pronated position when placed in a position of supination.
Baccelli's obsolete s.: good conduction of the whisper in nonpurulent pleural effusions.aphonic pectoriloquy;
Ballance's s.the presence of a dull percussion note in both flanks, constant on the left side but shifting with change of position on the right, said to indicate ruptured spleen; the dullness is due to the presence of blood, fluid on the right side but coagulated on the left.
Bamberger's s. 1. jugular pulse in tricuspid insufficiency; 2. allochiria 3. dullness on percussion at the angle of the scapula, clearing up as the patient leans forward, indicating pericarditis with effusion.
bandage s.Rumpel-Leede test
Bárány's cases of ear disease, in which the vestibule is healthy, injection into the external auditory canal of water below the body temperature (18°C or lower) will cause rotary nystagmus toward the opposite side; when the injected fluid is above the body temperature (41°C or higher) the nystagmus will be toward the injected side; if the labyrinth is diseased or nonfunctional there may be diminished or absent nystagmus.
Barré's s.if the hemiplegic is placed in the prone position with the limbs flexed at the knees, he is unable to maintain the flexed position on the side of the lesion but extends the leg.
Bassler's chronic appendicitis, pinching the appendix between the thumb and the iliacus muscle causes sharp pain.
Bastedo's obsolete s.: in chronic appendicitis, pain and tenderness in the right iliac fossa on inflation of the colon with air.
Battle's s.postauricular ecchymosis in cases of fracture of the base of the skull.
B6 bronchus lung radiology, appearance of an air bronchogram of the superior segmental bronchus of the lower lobe because of segmental atelectasis or consolidation.
beak s.appearance of the distal esophagus, on a contrast esophagram, in achalasia; also used to describe the proximal pyloric canal on upper GI series in congenital pyloric stenosis.
Bechterew's s.paralysis of automatic facial movements, the power of voluntary movement being retained.
Beevor's s.with paralysis of the lower portions of the recti abdominis muscles the umbilicus moves upward.
Bezold's s.Bezold's symptom
Biederman's s.a dusky redness of the lower portion of the anterior pillars of the fauces in certain cases of syphilis.
Bielschowsky's paralysis of a superior oblique muscle, tilting the head to the side of the involved eye causes that eye to rotate upward.
Biermer's s.Gerhardt's s
Biernacki's s.analgesia to percussion of the ulnar nerve in tabes dorsalis and dementia paralytica.
Biot's s.abnormal breathing pattern characterized by periods of apnea and periods in which several breaths of similar volume are taken; seen with increased intracranial pressure.
Biot's breathing s.irregular periods of apnea alternating with four or five deep breaths; seen with increased intracranial pressure.
Bird's s.the presence of a zone of dullness on percussion with absence of respiratory s.'s in hydatid cyst of the lung.
Bjerrum's s.Bjerrum's scotoma
blue dot s.a blue or black spot visible beneath the skin on the cranial aspect of testis or epididymis. This is a torsed testicular appendage and is usually quite tender.
Blumberg's s.pain felt upon sudden release of steadily applied pressure on a suspected area of the abdomen, indicative of peritonitis.
Bonhoeffer's s.loss of normal muscle tone in chorea.
Bozzolo's s.pulsating vessels in the nasal mucous membrane, noted occasionally in thoracic aneurysm.
Branham's s.bradycardia following compression or excision of an arteriovenous fistula.
Braxton Hicks s.irregular uterine contractions occurring after the third month of pregnancy.
Broadbent's s.a retraction of the thoracic wall, synchronous with cardiac systole, visible anywhere, but particularly in the left posterior axillary line; a s. of adherent pericardium.
Brockenbrough s.absolute decrease in pulse pressure of the beat immediately following a premature beat; a s. of idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis.
Brudzinski's s. 1. in meningitis, on passive flexion of the leg on one side, a similar movement occurs in the opposite leg;contralateral reflex, contralateral s; 2. in meningitis, if the neck is passively flexed, flexion of the legs occurs.neck s;
Bryant's dislocation of the shoulder, an abnormal position of axillary folds occurs.
burning drops certain cases of perforated gastric ulcer, a sensation as of drops of hot liquid falling into the abdominal cavity or as of a stream of intensely hot liquid being poured into the cavity.
calcium chest radiography, displacement of the line of the calcified intima of the aorta away from its outer wall, a finding in a small percentage of cases of dissection of blood in the aortic media; the expression "displaced intimal calcification" is preferred to the listed term. See aortic dissection.
Calkins' s.the change of shape of the uterus from discoid to ovoid, indicating placental separation from the uterine wall.
Cantelli's s. See doll's eye s.
Carman's gastric radiology, the appearance of a contrast-filled malignant ulcer, which does not extend beyond the line of the gastric wall as a benign ulcer would; also has a thick overhanging rim of tumor tissue.
Carnett's s.disappearance of abdominal tenderness to palpation when the anterior abdominal muscles are contracted, indicating pain of intra-abdominal origin; its persistence suggests a source in the abdominal wall, which is also indicated when tenderness is caused by gently pinching a fold of skin and fat between the thumb and forefinger.
Carvallo's increase in the intensity of the pansystolic murmur of tricuspid regurgitation during or at the end of inspiration distinguishes tricuspid from mitral involvement.
Castellani-Low s.a fine tremor of the tongue observed in sleeping sickness.
Chaddock s.when the external malleolar skin area is irritated, extension of the great toe occurs in cases of organic disease of the corticospinal reflex paths.Chaddock reflex, external malleolar s;
Chadwick's s.a bluish discoloration of the cervix and vagina, a s. of pregnancy.
chandelier s.colloquial term referring to severe pain elicited during pelvic examination of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease in which the patient responds by reaching upwards towards the ceiling for relief.
Chaussier's s.severe pain in the epigastrium, a prodrome of eclampsia; may be of central origin or caused by distention of the capsule of liver by hemorrhage.
Chvostek's s.facial irritability in tetany, unilateral spasm of the orbicularis oculi or oris muscle being excited by a slight tap over the facial nerve just anterior to the external auditory meatus.Weiss' s;
Claybrook's rupture of abdominal viscus, transmission of breath and heart sounds through the abdominal wall.
Cleemann's fracture of the femur with overriding of the fragments, wrinkling of the skin occurs directly above the patella.
clenched fist angina pectoris, pressing of the clenched fist against the chest to indicate the constricting, pressing quality of the pain.
Codman's the absence of rotator cuff function, hunching of the shoulder occurs when the deltoid muscle contracts.
Collier's s.unilateral or bilateral lid retraction due to midbrain lesion; occurring at any age. See setting sun s., Epstein's s.Collier's tucked lid s;
Collier's tucked lid s.Collier's s
colon cutoff s.radiographic s. of (usually) inflammatory disease preventing distention of the distal transverse colon.
Comby's early s. of measles, consisting in thin whitish patches on the gums and buccal mucous membrane, formed of desquamating epithelial cells.
comet chest radiology, the curved appearance of pulmonary arteries and veins associated with round atelectasis, fibrosis associated with organizing pleurisy.comet tail s;
comet tail s.comet s
commemorative s.a phenomenon pointing to the previous existence of some disease other than the one present at the time.
Comolli's cases of fracture of the scapula, a typical triangular cushion-like swelling appears, corresponding to the outline of the scapula.
contralateral s.Brudzinski's s. (1)
conventional s.'ss.'s that acquire their function through social (linguistic) custom; e.g., words, mathematical symbols. See also symbol (4) .
Coopernail's fracture of the pelvis, occurrence of ecchymosis of the perineum and scrotum, or labia.
Corrigan's s.a full hard pulse followed by a sudden collapse easily palpated and occurring in aortic regurgitation.Corrigan's pulse;
Courvoisier's s.Courvoisier's law
Crichton-Browne's s.a slight tremor at the angles of the mouth and at the outer canthus of each eye in general paresis.
Cruveilhier-Baumgarten s.a murmur over the umbilicus often in the presence of caput medusae, resulting from portal hypertension, usually with hepatic cirrhosis; recanalization of the umbilical vein with reverse blood flow from the liver into the abdominal wall veins creates the murmur.
Cullen's s.periumbilical darkening of the skin from blood, a s. of intraperitoneal hemorrhage, especially in ruptured ectopic pregnancy.
Dalrymple's s.retraction of the upper eyelid in Graves' disease, causing abnormal wideness of the palpebral fissure.
Dance's s.a slight retraction in the neighborhood of the right iliac fossa in some cases of intussusception.
Danforth's s.shoulder pain on inspiration, due to irritation of the diaphragm by a hemoperitoneum in ruptured ectopic pregnancy.
Darier's s.urtication on stroking of cutaneous lesions of urticaria pigmentosa (mastocytosis).
Dawbarn's s.pain of subacromial bursitis disappears when the arm is abducted.
Dejerine's s.aggravation of symptoms of radiculitis by the acts of coughing, sneezing, or straining to defecate.
Delbet's a case of aneurysm of a main artery, efficient collateral circulation if the nutrition of the part below is well maintained, despite the fact that the pulse has disappeared.
de Musset's s.Musset's s
D'&Euacute;spine's obsolete s.: 1. bronchophony over the spinous processes heard, at a lower level than in health, in pulmonary tuberculosis; 2. an echoed whisper following a spoken word, heard in the stethoscope placed over the seventh cervical or first or second dorsal spine, in cases of tuberculosis of the mediastinal glands.
dimple dermatofibroma, dimpling elicited when the lesion is squeezed.
doll's eye s.reflex movement of the eyes in the opposite direction to that which the head is moved, e.g., the eyes being lowered as the head is raised, and the reverse (Cantelli's sign); an indication of functional integrity of the brainstem tegmental pathways and cranial nerves involved in eye movement.vestibular ocular reflex;
Dorendorf's s.fullness of one supraclavicular groove in aneurysm of the aortic arch.
double bubble pediatric radiology, appearance of the dilated air-filled stomach and duodenal bulb, associated with duodenal atresia or web, less often midgut volvulus.
double track pediatric radiology, a less common s. of congenital pyloric stenosis, when barium is caught between mucosal folds in the hypertrophied pylorus.
drawer a knee examination, the forward or backward sliding of the tibia indicating laxity or tear of the anterior (forward slide) or posterior (backward slide) cruciate ligaments of the knee.drawer test, Rocher's s;
drooping lily urography, a s. of a double renal collecting system with an obstruction of the upper system depressing the opacified calyces of the lower system so they appear to droop.
Drummond's certain cases of aortic aneurysm, a puffing sound, synchronous with cardiac systole, heard from the nostrils, when the mouth is closed.
Duchenne's s.falling in of the epigastrium during inspiration in paralysis of the diaphragm.
Dupuytren's s. 1. in congenital dislocation, free up and down movement of the head of the femur occurs upon intermittent traction; 2. a crackling sensation on pressure over the bone in certain cases of sarcoma.
Duroziez' s.Duroziez' murmur
Ebstein's pericardial effusion, obtuseness of the cardiohepatic angle on percussion.
s. of edema of lower eyelidswelling of the lower lid found in congestive failure, myxedema, or nephrosis.
Epstein's s.lid retraction in an infant giving it a frightened expression and a "wild glance." See setting sun s., Collier's s.
Erb s. 1. increased electric excitability of the muscles to the galvanic current, and frequently to the faradic, in tetany; 2. Erb-Westphal s
Erb-Westphal s.abolition of the patellar tendon reflex, in tabes and certain other diseases of the spinal cord, and occasionally also in brain disease.Erb s. (2) , Westphal's phenomenon, Westphal's s;
Erichsen's sacroiliac disease, pain is felt when sudden pressure approximates the iliac bones; this s. is not present in hip disease.
Escherich's hypoparathyroidism (latent tetany) tapping the skin at the angle of the mouth causes protrusion of the lips.
Ewart's large pericardial effusions, an area of dullness with bronchial breathing and bronchophony below the angle of the left scapula.Pins' s;
Ewing's s. 1. dullness on percussion to the inner side of the angle of the left scapula, denoting an accumulation of fluid in the pericardium behind the heart; 2. tenderness at the upper inner angle of the orbit at the point of attachment of the pulley of the superior oblique muscle, denoting closure of the outlet of the frontal sinus.
external malleolar s.Chaddock s
eyelash a case of apparent unconsciousness due to functional disease, such as conversion hysteria, stroking the eyelashes will occasion movement of the lids, but no such reflex will occur in case of severe organic brain lesion such as apoplexy, fracture of the skull, or other traumatism.
Faget's s.a slow pulse with an elevated temperature, often seen in yellow fever.
fan s.the spreading apart of the toes in the complete Babinski's sign.
Fischer's obsolete s.: in tuberculosis of the mediastinal or peri-bronchial glands, after bending the patient's head as far back as possible, auscultation over the manubrium sterni will sometimes reveal a continuous loud murmur caused by the pressure of the enlarged glands on the large mediastinal vessels.Fischer's symptom;
fissure perfusion scintigraphy of the lungs, decreased uptake of radionuclide in the periphery of each lobe, making the fissures visible; caused by a variety of diseases and artifacts.
flag s.bands of discoloration of hair (reddish, blonde, or gray, depending on original color) resulting from fluctuations in nutrition characteristic of kwashiorkor and in diseases of protein depletion such as ulcerative colitis.
Forchheimer's s.the presence, in German measles, of a reddish maculopapular eruption on the soft palate.
Fothergill's rectus sheath hematoma, the hematoma produces a mass that does not cross the midline and remains palpable when the rectus muscle is tense.
Friedreich's adherent pericardium, sudden collapse of the previously distended veins of the neck at each diastole of the heart.
Froment's s.flexion of the distal phalanx of the thumb when a sheet of paper is held between the thumb and index finger in ulnar nerve palsy.
Gaenslen's s.pain on hyperextension of the hip with pelvis fixed by flexion of opposite hip; causes a torsion stress at the sacroiliac and lumbosacral joints.
Gauss' s.marked mobility of the uterus in the early weeks of pregnancy.
Gerhardt's s.complete bilateral paralysis of the adductor muscles of the larynx with severe inspiratory dyspnea.Biermer's s;
Glasgow's s.a systolic murmur heard over the brachial artery in aneurysm of the aorta.
gloved-finger chest radiology, the appearance of mucoid impaction of branching bronchi.
Goggia's s.the fibrillation of the biceps muscle, when pinched and tapped, is confined to a limited area in cases of debilitating disease, whereas in health it is general.
Goldstein's toe s.increased space between the great toe and its neighbor, seen in mongolism and occasionally in cretinism.
Goldthwait's sprain of sacroiliac ligaments, flexion of hip with extended knee elicits pain in sacroiliac region; not now considered specific.
Goodell's s.softening of the cervix and vagina as being usually indicative of pregnancy.
Gordon's s.finger phenomenon
Gorlin's s.unusual ease in touching the tip of the nose with the tongue; seen in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Graefe's Grave's disease, lag of the upper eyelid as it follows the rotation of the eyeball downward.von Graefe's s;
Grasset's s.normal contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle on the paralyzed side in cases of hemiplegia.
Grey Turner's s.local areas of discoloration about the umbilicus and in the region of the loins, in acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis and other causes of retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
Griesinger's s.erythema and edema over the posterior mastoid process resulting from septic thrombosis of the mastoid emissary vein and thrombophlebitis of the sigmoid sinus.
Grisolle's obsolete s.; in smallpox, the continued presence and palpability of papules when the skin is stretched.
Grocco's s. 1. acute dilation of the heart following a muscular effort, described in Graves' disease; also occurring in various forms of myocardiopathy; 2. extension of the liver dullness several centimeters to the left of the midspinal line in cases of enlargement of that organ.
groove s.large, hard, fixed, and extremely tender lymph nodes in the groin above and below the inguinal ligament, with a groove along the ligament; characteristic of lymphogranuloma venereum.
Gunn's s. 1. compression of the underlying vein at arteriovenous crossings seen ophthalmoscopically in arteriolar sclerosis; 2. on alternate stimulation with light, the pupil of an eye with optic nerve transmission defect constricts poorly or even dilates when stimulated (a relative afferent pupillary defect).Marcus Gunn's s;
Gunn's crossing s.retinal arteriovenous crossing with venous compression in hypertensive disease.
Guyon's s. 1. ballottement of the kidney in cases of nephroptosis, especially when there is also a renal tumor; 2. the hypoglossal nerve lies directly upon the external carotid artery, whereby this vessel may be distinguished from the internal carotid when ligation is necessary.
halo s.elevation of the subcutaneous fat layer over the fetal skull in a dead or dying fetus; said to be the most common radiologic sign of fetal death.
halo s. of hydropsa discredited roentgenographic s. of fetal hydrops caused by scalp edema so that a definite corona surrounds the skull.
Hamman's s.a crunching, rasping sound, synchronous with heart beat, heard over the precordium and sometimes at a distance from the chest in mediastinal emphysema.
Hegar's s.softening and compressibility of the lower segment of the uterus in early pregnancy (about the seventh week) which, on bimanual examination, is felt by the finger in the vagina as though the neck and body of the uterus were separated, or connected by only a thin band of tissue.
Heim-Kreysig adherent pericardium, an indrawing of the intercostal spaces, synchronous with the cardiac systole.Kreysig's s;
Helbings' s.a malalignment of the Achilles tendon associated with a valgus deformity of the os calcis.
Hennebert's s.nystagmus produced by pressure applied to a sealed external auditory canal; may be seen in labyrinthine fistula or with intact tympanic membrane in syphilitic involvement of the otic capsule.
Higoumenakia s.sternoclavicular swelling in late congenital syphilis.
Hill's aortic insufficiency, greater systolic blood pressure in the legs than in the arms; normal arterial systolic pressure in the leg is 10 to 20 mm of Hg above that in the arm, whereas in aortic insufficiency the difference may be 60 to 100 mm of Hg.Hill's phenomenon;
Hoffmann's s. 1. in latent tetany mild mechanical stimulation of the trigeminal nerve causes severe pain; 2. flexion of the terminal phalanx of the thumb and of the second and third phalanges of one or more of the fingers when the volar surface of the terminal phalanx of the fingers is reflex, Hoffmann's reflex, snapping reflex;
Hoagland's s.eyelid edema in infectious mononucleosis.
Homans' s.slight pain at the back of the knee or calf when the ankle is slowly and gently dorsiflexed (with the knee bent), indicative of incipient or established thrombosis in the veins of the leg.
Hoover's s.'s 1. a person lying supine on a couch, when asked to raise one leg, involuntarily makes counterpressure with the heel of the other leg; if this leg is paralyzed, whatever muscular power is preserved in it will be exerted in this way; or if the patient attempts to lift a paralyzed leg, counterpressure will be made with the other heel, whether any movement occurs in the paralyzed limb or not; not present in hysteria or malingering; 2. a modification in the movement of the costal margins during respiration, caused by a flattening of the diaphragm; suggestive of empyema or other intrathoracic condition causing a change in the contour of the diaphragm.
Hueter's a case of fracture, the vibration expected on tapping the bone is not transmitted when tissue intervenes between the fractured parts of bone.
iconic s.'ss.'s that acquire their function through similarity to what they signify; e.g., a photograph as a s. of the person in the picture.
indexical s.'ss.'s that acquire their function through a causal connection with what they signify; e.g., smoke as a s. of fire.
inferior triangle chest radiology, lateral displacement of the diaphragmatic pleura near the diaphragm, associated with collapse of the upper lobe, usually on the right side.
Jackson's s.during quiet respiration the movement of the paralyzed side of the chest may be greater than that of the opposite side, while in forced respiration the paralyzed side moves less than the other. [J. H. Jackson]
Joffroy's s.disorder of the arithmetical faculty (the person being unable to do simple sums in addition or multiplication) in the early stages of organic brain disease.
Keen's s.increased width at the malleoli in Pott's fracture.
Kehr's s.violent pain in the left shoulder in a case of rupture of the spleen.
Kernig's s.when the subject lies upon the back and the thigh is flexed to a right angle with the axis of the trunk, complete extension of the leg on the thigh is impossible; present in various forms of meningitis.
Kestenbaum's s.a decrease in the number of arterioles crossing optic disk margins as a s. of optic neuritis.
Kocher's Graves' disease, on upward gaze, the globe lags behind the movement of the upper eyelid.
Kreysig's s.Heim-Kreysig s
Kussmaul's constrictive pericarditis, a paradoxical increase in venous distention and pressure during inspiration; seen occasionally in effusive-constrictive pericarditis when tamponading pericardial fluid overlies a constricting epicarditis.Kussmaul's symptom;
Lancisi's s.a large systolic jugular venous wave caused by tricuspid regurgitation replacing the normal negative systolic trough ("x" descent).
Landolfi's aortic insufficiency, systolic contraction and diastolic dilation of the pupil.
Lasègue's s.when patient is supine with hip flexed, dorsiflexion of the ankle causing pain or muscle spasm in the posterior thigh indicates lumbar root or sciatic nerve irritation.
Laugier's fracture of the lower portion of the radius, the styloid processes of the radius and of the ulna are on the same level.
Legendre's facial hemiplegia of central origin, when the examiner raises the lids of the actively closed eyes the resistance is less on the affected side.
Leichtenstern's s.tapping gently one of the bones of the extremities causes the patient to draw back violently, sometimes with a loud cry; noted in cases of cerebrospinal meningitis.Leichtenstern's phenomenon;
Leri's s.voluntary flexion of the elbow is impossible in a case of hemiplegia when the wrist on that side is passively flexed.
Leser-Trélat s.the sudden appearance and rapid increase in the number and size of seborrheic keratoses with pruritus; associated with internal malignancy.
Lhermitte's s.sudden electric-like shocks extending down the spine on flexing the head.
Lichtheim's subcortical aphasia, the patient can indicate by use of the fingers the number of syllables of a word he has in mind but cannot speak.Dejerine-Lichtheim phenomenon;
local s.the characteristic of a sensation that permits distinguishing it from another sensation by locating its position in space.
Lorenz' obsolete s.: stiffness of the thoracic spine in early pulmonary tuberculosis.
Lovibond's profile s.Lovibond's angle
Ludloff's traumatic separation of the epiphysis of the lesser trochanter: 1. swelling and ecchymosis appear at the base of Scarpa's triangle; 2. inability to raise the thigh in the sitting posture.
Macewen's s.percussion of the skull gives a cracked-pot sound in cases of hydrocephalus.Macewen's symptom;
Magendie-Hertwig s.skew deviation of the eyes in acute cerebellar lesions.Magendie-Hertwig syndrome;
Magnan's s.paresthesia in the psychosis of cocaine addicts, who imagine they have a foreign body, in the shape of a powder or fine sand, under the skin, and that it is constantly changing its position.
Magnus' obsolete s.: after death, constriction of a limb or one of its segments is not followed by venous congestion of the distal part.
Mannkopf's s.acceleration of the pulse when a painful point is pressed upon.
Marañón's Graves' disease, a vasomotor reaction following stimulation of the skin over the throat.
Marcus Gunn's s.Gunn's s
Masini's s.a marked degree of dorsal extension of the fingers on the metacarpals and of the toes on the metatarsals, noted in children with mental instability.
McBurney's s.tenderness at site two-thirds of the distance between the umbilicus and the anterior-superior iliac spine; seen in appendicitis.
Metenier's s.easy eversion of the upper eyelid in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Mirchamp's s.a premonitory symptom of mumps; if a strongly flavored substance is placed on the tongue a painful reflex secretion of saliva occurs in the gland that is the seat of the incipient affection.
Möbius' s.impairment of ocular convergence in Graves' disease.
Mosler's s.tenderness over the sternum in a patient with acute myeloblastic anemia.
Muerhrcke's s.apparent leukonychia with white bands parallel to lanula of the nails, seen in hypoalbuminemia.Muehrcke's bands;
Müller's aortic insufficiency, rhythmical pulsatory movements of the uvula, synchronous with the heart's action; accompanied by swelling and redness of the velum palati and tonsils.
Munson's keratoconus, the extra bowing of the lower eyelid caused by the misshapen cornea as the eye rotates downward.
Murphy's s.pain on palpation of the right subcostal area during inspiration frequently associated with acute cholecystitis.
Musset's incompetence of the aortic valve, rhythmical nodding of the head, synchronous with the heart Musset's s;
neck s.Brudzinski's s. (2)
Néri's hemiplegia, the knee bends spontaneously when the leg is passively extended.
Nikolsky's s.a peculiar vulnerability of the skin in pemphigus vulgaris; the apparently normal epidermis may be separated at the basal layer and rubbed off when pressed with a sliding motion.
objective s.a s. that is evident to the examiner.
s. of the orbicularisin hemiplegia, inability to voluntarily close the eye on the paralyzed side except in conjunction with closure of the other eye.Revilliod's s;
Osler's acute bacterial endocarditis, circumscribed painful erythematous swellings, ranging in size from that of a pinhead to that of a pea, in the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the hands and feet.
Pastia's s.the presence of pink or red transverse lines at the bend of the elbow in the preeruptive stage of scarlatina; they persist through the eruptive stage and remain as pigmented lines after desquamation.Thomson's s;
Payr's s.pain on pressure over the sole of the foot; a s. of thrombophlebitis.
Perez' s.rales audible over the upper part of the chest when the arms are alternately raised and lowered; common in cases of fibrous mediastinitis and also of aneurysm of the aortic arch.
Pfuhl's s.the pressure of pus within a subphrenic abscess rises during inspiration and falls during expiration, the reverse of what happens in the case of a purulent collection above the diaphragm; when the diaphragm is paralyzed this distinction is lost.
physical s.a s. that is observed or elicited by auscultation, percussion, or palpation.
Piltz s.eye-closure pupil reaction
Pins' s.Ewart's s
Pitres' s. 1. haphalgesia 2. diminished sensation in the testes and scrotum in tabes dorsalis.
placental s.slight endometrial oozing of blood which occurs in certain animals and sometimes in women at the time of implantation of the fertilized ovum; in women, if the blood appears externally it may be mistaken for a scanty menstrual period.
Pool-Schlesinger s.Pool's phenomenon (1)
Potain's dilation of the aorta, dullness on percussion extending from the manubrium sterni toward the second intercostal space and the third costal cartilage on the right, the upper limit extending from the base of the sternum in the segment of a circle to the right.
prodromic s.a s. that appears during the prodrome of a disease.antecedent s;
pseudo-Graefe s.a lid retraction phenomenon similar to Graefe's s., but due to aberrant regeneration of fibers of the oculomotor nerve into the levator of the upper lid.
puddle s.a s. of free abdominal fluid: the patient assumes a position on all fours; one flank is percussed by repeated light flicking of constant intensity while a Bowles-type stethoscope is placed over the most dependent portion of the abdomen and gradually moved toward the flank opposite the percussion; a sharp increase in the intensity of the sound picked up by the stethoscope indicates the level of fluid.
pyramid s.any of the symptoms indicating a morbid condition of the pyramidal tracts, such as the Babinski or Gordon s., spastic spinal paralysis, foot clonus, etc.
Quant's s.a T-shaped depression in the occipital bone occurring in many cases of rickets, especially in infants lying constantly in bed with pressure on the occiput.
Quénu-Muret aneurysm, well-maintained collateral circulation indicated by issue of blood when the main artery of the limb is compressed and a puncture is made at the periphery.
Quincke's s.Quincke's pulse
Ransohoff's s.yellow pigmentation in the umbilical region in rupture of the common bile duct.
Raynaud's s.acrocyanosis
Remak's s.dissociation of the sensations of touch and of pain in tabes dorsalis and polyneuritis.
reversed-three s.on an esophagram of a patient with coarctation of the aorta, the shape of the contrast-filled esophagus caused by the aortic arch (upper convexity) and post-stenotic dilatation (lower convexity); the cusp of the backwards 3 is at the level of the coarctation itself.
Revilliod's s.s. of the orbicularis
Ripault's s.a s. of death, consisting in a permanent change in the shape of the pupil produced by unilateral pressure on the eyeball.
Rocher's s.drawer s
Romaña's s.marked edema of one or both eyelids, usually a unilateral palpebral edema, thought to be a sensitization response to the bite of a triatomine bug infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, and a strong suggestion of acute Chagas' disease.
Romberg's s.with feet approximated, the patient stands with eyes open and then closed; if closing the eyes increases the unsteadiness, a loss of proprioceptive control is indicated, and the sign is positive.Romberg test, Romberg's symptom (1) , rombergism, station test;
Rosenbach's s.loss of the abdominal reflex in cases of acute inflammation of the viscera.
Rossolimo's s.Rossolimo's reflex
Rotch's pericardial effusion, percussion dullness in the fifth intercostal space on the right.
Rovsing's s.pain at McBurney's point induced in cases of appendicitis, by pressure exerted over the descending colon.
Rumpel-Leede s.Rumpel-Leede test
Russell's s.abrasions and scars on the back of the hands of individuals with bulimia, usually due to manual attempts at self-induced vomiting.
Saenger's s.a lost light reflex of the pupil returns after a short time in the dark, noted in cerebral syphilis but absent in tabes dorsalis.
Sansom's mitral stenosis, apparent duplication of the second heart sound.
Schapiro's myocardial weakness, no slowing of the pulse occurs when the patient lies down.
Schlesinger's s.Pool's phenomenon (1)
Schultze's latent tetany, tapping the tongue causes its depression with a concave dorsum.tongue phenomenon;
scimitar s.a curvilinear structure seen roentgenographically in the lung and associated with anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, suggesting the sickle shape, of a Turkish saber; also used to refer to the scalloped shape of the sacrum in spinal dysraphism with anterior meningocele.
Seeligmüller's s.contraction of the pupil on the affected side in facial neuralgia.
Seidel's s.a sickle-shaped scotoma appearing as an upward or downward extension of the blind spot.
sentinel loop gastrointestinal radiology, dilatation of a segment of large or small intestine, indicative of localized ileus from nearby inflammation.
setting sun s.retraction of the upper lid without upgaze so that the iris seems to "set" below the lower lid; suggestive of neurologic damage in the newborn, but usually clears up without sequelae. See Collier's s., Epstein's s.
S s. of Goldenin pulmonary radiology, the combination of an atelectatic lobe and a central obstructing mass produces a concavity and a convexity, like the letter "S."
Shibley's s.on auscultation of the chest, the spoken sound "e" is heard as "ah" over an area of pulmonary consolidation or immediately above a pleural effusion.
Siegert's s.shortness and inward curvature of the terminal phalanges of the fifth fingers in Down's syndrome.
Signorelli's s.tenderness on pressure in the glenoid fossa in front of the mastoid process in meningitis.
silhouette s. of Felsonin pulmonary radiology, the obliteration of a normal air-soft tissue interface, such as the cardiac silhouette, when fluid fills the adjacent part of the lung.
Simon's incipient meningitis in children, the movements of the diaphragm are dissociated from those of the thorax.
Skoda's s.skodaic resonance
Snellen's s.bruit heard on auscultation over the eye in a patient with Graves' disease, due to the hyperdynamic circulation.
spinal pleurisy, the spinal muscles are in a state of tonic contraction on the affected side.
spine s.resistance to flexion of the spine in cases of meningitis.
Steinberg thumb Marfan's syndrome, when the thumb is held across the palm of the same hand, it projects well beyond the ulnar surface of the hand.
Stellwag's s.infrequent and incomplete blinking in Graves' disease.
Sternberg's s.unilateral tenderness or discomfort on palpation of the shoulder girdle muscles in a patient with pleurisy on that side.
Stewart-Holmes cerebellar disease, the inability to check a movement when passive resistance is suddenly released.rebound phenomenon (1) ;
Stierlin's s.repeated emptying of the cecum, seen radiographically, with barium remaining in the terminal part of the ileum and in the transverse colon; due to irritation of the cecum, sometimes caused by tuberculous cecitis (typhilitis).
Straus' facial paralysis, if an injection of pilocarpine is followed by sweating on the affected side later than on the other, the lesion is peripheral.
string pediatric gastrointestinal radiology, the narrowed pyloric canal seen with congenital pyloric stenosis; also used to describe a narrowed segment in regional ileitis on small bowel series.
subjective s.a s. that is perceived only by the patient.
Sumner's s.a slight increase in tonus of the abdominal muscles, an early indication of inflammation of the appendix, stone in the kidney or ureter, or a twisted pedicle of an ovarian cyst; it is detected by exceedingly gentle palpation of the right or left iliac fossa.
superior triangle chest radiology, widening of the superior mediastinum, usually on the right, associated with collapse of the lower lobe producing traction on the mediastinal pleura.
ten Horn's s.pain caused by gentle traction on the right spermatic cord, indicative of appendicitis.
Thomson's s.Pastia's s
Tinel's s. (DTP) a sensation of tingling, or of "pins and needles," felt in the distal extremity of a limb when percussion is made over the site of an injured nerve; it indicates a partial lesion or early regeneration in the nerve.
Toma's distinguish between inflammatory and noninflammatory ascites: in inflammatory conditions of the peritoneum, the mesentery contracts, drawing the intestines over to the right side; consequently, when the patient lies on his back, tympany is elicited on the right side, dullness on the left.
Topolanski's s.congestion of the pericorneal region of the eye in Graves' disease.
Tournay s.Tournay's phenomenon
Traube's s.a double sound or murmur heard in auscultation over arteries (particularly the femoral arteries) in significant aortic regurgitation.
Trélat's obsolete s.; the presence of disseminated yellowish spots in the neighborhood of tuberculous ulcers of the mouth; they are minute tubercles or miliary abscesses.
Trendelenburg's congenital dislocation of the hip or in hip abductor weakness, the pelvis will sag on the side opposite to the dislocation when the hip and knee of the normal side is flexed; without dislocation or weakness, the pelvis will rise on the side of the flexed hip and knee.
Tresilian's s.a reddish prominence at the orifice of Stenson's duct, noted in mumps.
Trousseau's latent tetany, the occurrence of carpopedal spasm accompanied by paresthesia elicited when the upper arm is compressed, as by a tourniquet or a blood pressure cuff.
Trunecek's s.palpable impulse of the subclavian artery near the point of origin of the sternomastoid muscle in cases of aortic sclerosis.
Uhthoff's s. See Uhthoff symptom.
Vierra's s.yellowing and canalization of the nail in fogo selvagem.
Vipond's s.a generalized adenopathy occurring during the period of incubation of various of the exanthemas of childhood, affording an early diagnostic s. in a case of known exposure.
vital s.'smanifestation of breathing, heartbeat, and sustained blood pressure.
von Graefe's s.Graefe's s
Weber's s.Weber's syndrome
Weiss' s.Chvostek's s
Wernicke's s.Wernicke's reaction
Westermark's chest radiography, an abrupt tapering of a vessel caused by pulmonary thromboembolic obstruction.
Westphal-Erb s.
Westphal's s.Erb-Westphal s
Wilder's s.a slight twitch of the eyeball when changing its movement from abduction to adduction or the reverse, noted in Graves' disease.
Winterbottom's s.swelling of the posterior cervical lymph nodes, characteristic of early stages of African trypanosomiasis; useful for surveys or control of migrations from endemic areas of persons with preclinical infections.
wrist Marfan's syndrome, when the wrist is gripped with the opposite hand, the thumb and fifth finger overlap appreciably.


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