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space (spas)

Any demarcated portion of the body, either an area of the surface, a segment of the tissues, or a cavity. See also area, region, zone.spatium [NA] ; [L. spatium, room, space]
alveolar dead s.the difference between physiologic dead s. and anatomical dead s.; it represents that part of the physiologic dead s. resulting from ventilation of relatively underperfused or nonperfused alveoli; it differs specifically in being placed so as to fill and empty in parallel with functional alveoli, rather than being interposed in the conducting tubes between functional alveoli and the external environment.
anatomical dead s.the volume of the conducting airways from the external environment (at the nose and mouth) down to the level at which inspired gas exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with pulmonary capillary blood; formerly presumed to extend down to the beginning of alveolar epithelium in the respiratory bronchioles, but more recent evidence indicates that effective gas exchange extends some distance up the thicker-walled conducting airways because of rapid longitudinal mixing. Cf. alveolar dead s., physiologic dead s. anatomical airway;
antecubital s.cubital fossa
anterior clear s.retrosternal s
apical s.the s. between the alveolar wall and the apex of the root of a tooth where an alveolar abscess usually has its origin.
axillary s.axilla
Berger's s.the s. between the patellar fossa of the vitreous and the lens.
Bogros' s.retroinguinal s
Böttcher's s.endolymphatic sac
Bowman's s.capsular s
Burns' s.suprasternal s
capsular s.the slitlike s. between the visceral and parietal layers of the capsule of the renal corpuscle; it opens into the proximal tubule of the nephron at the neck of the tubule.Bowman's s., filtration s;
cartilage s.cartilage lacuna
central palmar s.the more medial of the central palmar spaces, bounded medially by the hypothenar compartment; related distally to the synovial tendon sheaths of digits 3 and 4 and proximally to the common flexor sheath.medial midpalmar s., middle palmar s;
Chassaignac's s.potential s. between the pectoralis major and the mammary gland.
Cloquet's s.a s. between the ciliary zonule and the vitreous body.
Colles' s.superficial perineal s
corneal of the stellate s.'s between the lamellae of the cornea, each of which contains a cell or corneal corpuscle.lacuna (4) ;
Cotunnius' s.endolymphatic sac
cranial epidural s.dura mater of brain
dead s. 1. a cavity, potential or real, remaining after the closure of a wound which is not obliterated by the operative technique; 2. See anatomical dead s., physiologic dead s.
deep perineal s.the region between the perineal membrane and the endopelvic fascia of the floor of the pelvis occupied by the membranous part of the urethra, the bulbourethral gland (in the male), the deep transverse perineal and sphincter urethrae muscles, and the dorsal nerve and artery of the penis or clitoris.spatium perinei profundum [NA] , deep perineal pouch;
denture s. 1. that portion of the oral cavity which is, or may be, occupied by maxillary and/or mandibular denture(s); 2. the s. between the residual ridges which is available for dentures. See also interarch distance.
disk s.on radiographs of the spine, the radiolucent region between each pair of vertebral bodies.
Disse's s.perisinusoidal s
s. of Dondersthe space between the dorsum of the tongue and the hard palate when the mandible is in rest position following the expiratory cycle of respiration.
epidural s.epidural cavity
episcleral s.the space between the fascial sheath of the eyeball and the sclera.spatium episclerale [NA] , interfascial s., spatium interfasciale, spatium intervaginale bulbi oculi, Tenon's s;
epitympanic s.epitympanic recess
filtration s.capsular s
Fontana's s.'ss.'s of iridocorneal angle
freeway s.the s. between the occluding surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth when the mandible is in physiologic resting position.interocclusal clearance, interocclusal distance (2) , interocclusal gap, interocclusal rest s. (2) ;
gingival s.gingival sulcus
haversian s.'ss.'s in bone formed by the enlargement of haversian canals.
Henke's s.retropharyngeal s.
His' perivascular s.Virchow-Robin s
infraglottic s.infraglottic cavity
interalveolar s.interarch distance
intercostal interval between the ribs, occupied by intercostal muscles, veins, arteries and nerves.spatium intercostale [NA] ;
interfascial s.episcleral s
interglobular of a number of irregularly branched spaces near the periphery of the dentin of the crown of a tooth, through which pass the ramifications of the tubules; they are caused by failure of calcification of the dentin.spatium interglobulare [NA] , interglobular s. of Owen;
interglobular s. of Oweninterglobular s
intermembrane s.the s. between the two membranes in a cell or organelle enclosed by a double biomembrane; e.g., the space between the inner and outer membranes of the mitochondria; sometimes referred to as the external matrix.
interocclusal rest s. 1. interocclusal distance (1) 2. freeway s
interosseous metacarpal s.'sthe s.'s between the metacarpal bones in the hand.spatia interossea metacarpi [NA] ;
interosseous metatarsal s.'sthe s.'s between the metatarsal bones in the foot.spatia interossea metatarsi [NA] ;
interpleural s.mediastinum (2)
interproximal s.the s. between adjacent teeth in a dental arch; it is divided into the embrasure occlusal to the contact area, and the septal s. gingival to the contact area.
interradicular s.the s. between the roots of multirooted teeth.
interseptovalvular s.the interval in the developing embryonic heart between the septum primum and the left valve of the sinus venosus.
intersheath s.'s of optic nerveintervaginal s. of optic nerve
intervaginal s. of optic nervethe spaces within the internal sheath of the optic nerve, between the arachnoidal and pial layers, filled with cerebrospinal fluid and continuous with the subarachnoid space.spatia intervaginalia nervi optici [NA] , intersheath s.'s of optic nerve, Schwalbe's s.'s;
intervillous s.'sthe s.'s containing maternal blood, located between placenta villi; they are lined with syncytiotrophoblast.
intraretinal s.the potential cleft between the pigmented and neural layers of the retina; it represents the cavity of the embryonic optic vesicle; retinal detachment occurs by the opening of this space.
s.'s of iridocorneal angleirregularly shaped endothelium-lined spaces within the trabecular reticulum, through which the aqueous filters to reach the sinus venosus sclerae.spatia anguli iridocornealis [NA] , ciliary canals, Fontana's s.'s;
Kiernan's s.interlobular s. in the liver.
Kretschmann's s.a slight depression in the epitympanic recess below the superior recess of tympanic membrane.
Kuhnt's s.'sshallow diverticula or recesses between the ciliary body and ciliary zonule which open into the posterior chamber of the eye.
lateral central palmar s.the more lateral (radial) of the central palmar spaces, bounded laterally by the thenar compartment; related distally to the synovial tendon sheath of the index finger and proximally to the common flexor sheath.lateral midpalmar s;
lateral midpalmar s.lateral central palmar s
lateral pharyngeal s.that part of the peripharyngeum s. located at the sides of the pharynx.spatium lateropharyngeum [NA] ;
leeway s.the difference between the combined mesiodistal widths of the deciduous cuspids and molars and their successors.
lymph s.a s., in tissue or a vessel, filled with lymph.
Magendie's s.'ss.'s between the pia and arachnoid at the level of the fissures of the brain.
Malacarne's s.posterior perforated substance
Meckel's s.trigeminal cave
medial midpalmar s.central palmar s
mediastinal s.mediastinum (2)
medullary s.the central cavity and the cellular intervals between the trabeculae of bone, filled with marrow.
middle palmar s.central palmar s
midpalmar s. 1. either of the two central palmar s.'s (medial or lateral).
Mohrenheim's s.infraclavicular fossa
Nuel's interval in the spiral organ (of Corti) between the outer pillar cells on one side and the phalangeal cells and hair cells on the other.
parapharyngeal s.pharyngomaxillary s
Parona's s.a s. between the pronator quadratus deep and the overlying flexor tendons of the forearm which is continuous through the carpal tunnel with the medial central palmar space.
parotid s.a deep hollow on the side at the sides of the face flanking the posterior aspect of the ramus of the mandible with its attached muscles which is occupied by the parotid gland; it is lined with fascial laminae (the parotid sheath) derived from the investing layer of deep cervical fascia; the structures bounding the s. collectively constitute the parotid bed. Surgeons operating in the area take advantage of the fact that the anteroposterior dimensions of the parotid s. increase with protrusion of the mandible.parotid recess, recessus parotideus;
perforated s. See anterior perforated substance, posterior perforated substance.
perichoroid s.perichoroidal s
perichoroidal s.the interval between the choroid and the sclera filled by the loose meshes of the lamina fusca of sclera and the suprachoroid lamina.spatium perichoroideale [NA] , perichoroid s;
perilymphatic between the bony and membranous portions of the labyrinth.spatium perilymphaticum [NA] , cisterna perilymphatica;
perineal s.'s See deep perineal s., superficial perineal s.
perinuclear s.cisterna caryothecae
peripharyngeal s.the space, filled with loose areolar tissue, around the pharynx; it is divided into two portions, lateral pharyngeal s. and retropharyngeal s.spatium peripharyngeum [NA] ;
periportal s. of Malla tissue s. between the limiting lamina and the portal canal in the liver.
perisinusoidal s.the potential extravascular s. between the liver sinusoids and liver parenchymal cells.Disse's s;
perivitelline s.the s. between the vitelline membrane and the zona pellucida, appearing in an ovum immediately following fertilization.
personal s.a term used in the behavioral sciences to denote the physical area immediately surrounding an individual who is in proximity to one or more others, whether known or unknown, and which serves as a body buffer zone in such interpersonal transactions.
pharyngeal s.the area occupied by the pharynx (naso-, oro-, and laryngopharnynx). Not to be confused with the retropharyngeal s.
pharyngomaxillary s.the s. limited by the lateral wall of the pharynx, the cervical vertebrae, and the medial pterygoid muscle.parapharyngeal s;
physiologic dead s. (VD) the sum of anatomic and alveolar dead s.; the dead s. calculated when the carbon dioxide pressure in systemic arterial blood is used instead of that of alveolar gas in Bohr's equation; it is a virtual or apparent volume that takes into account the impairment of gas exchange because of uneven distributions of lung ventilation and perfusion.
plantar of four areas between fascial layers in the foot, where pus may be confined when the foot is infected.
pleural s.pleural cavity
pneumatic s.any one of the paranasal sinuses.
Poiseuille's s.still layer
popliteal s.popliteal fossa
postpharyngeal s.retropharyngeal s
Proust's s.rectovesical pouch
Prussak's s.superior recess of tympanic membrane
pterygomandibular s.the area between the mandibular ramus and the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone.
quadrangular s.musculotendinous formation providing passageway for the axillary nerve, posterior humeral circumflex artery and accompanying veins as they run from the axilla to the superior posterior arm; as the neurovascular structures enter the formation anteriorly, it is bounded superiorly by the shoulder joint, medially by the lateral border of subscapularis, laterally by the surgical neck of the humerus, and inferiorly by the tendon of latissimus dorsi; as the vessels exit the formation posteriorly, it is bounded superiorly by the teres minor, medially by the long head of the triceps, laterally by the lateral head of the triceps and inferiorly by the teres major muscle or tendon; as they emerge, most of the neurovascular structures run on the deep surface of the deltoid muscle, which they supply.quadrilateral s;
quadrilateral s.quadrangular s
Reinke's s.the loose connective tissue in the superficial layer of the lamina propria of the vocal fold. Edema of this s. produces hoarseness in chronic smokers or in hypothyroidism.
respiratory dead s.that part of the respiratory tract or of a single breath which fails to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with pulmonary capillary blood; a nonspecific term which fails to distinguish between anatomical dead s. and physiologic dead s.
retroadductor s.potential s. between the adductor pollicis and first dorsal interosseous muscles.
retroinguinal s.a triangular s. between the peritoneum and the transversalis fascia, at the lower angle of which is the inguinal ligament; it contains the lower portion of the external iliac artery.Bogros' s., spatium retroinguinale;
retromylohyoid s.the sulcus at the posterior end of the mylohyoid line.
retroperitoneal s.the space between the parietal peritoneum and the muscles and bones of the posterior abdominal wall.spatium retroperitoneale [NA] , retroperitoneum;
retropharyngeal s.that part of the peripharyngeal s. located posterior to the pharynx.spatium retropharyngeum [NA] , postpharyngeal s;
retropubic s.the area of loose connective tissue between the bladder with its related fascia and the pubis and anterior abdominal wall.spatium retropubicum [NA] , cavum retzii, Retzius' cavity, Retzius' s;
retrosternal s.on lateral chest radiographs, the region dorsal to the sternum and ventral to the ascending aorta.anterior clear s;
Retzius' s.retropubic s
Schwalbe's s.'sintervaginal s. of optic nerve
subarachnoid s.the s. between the arachnoidea and pia mater, traversed by delicate fibrous trabeculae and filled with cerebrospinal fluid. Since the pia mater immediately adheres to the surface of the brain and spinal cord, the s. is greatly widened wherever the brain surface exhibits a deep depression (for example, between the cerebellum and medulla); such widenings are called cisternae. The large blood vessels supplying the brain and spinal cord lie in the subarachnoid s.cavum subarachnoideum [NA] , subarachnoid cavity;
subchorial s.the part of the placenta adjacently beneath the chorionic plate; it joins with irregular channels to form the marginal lakes.subchorial lake;
subdural s.originally thought to be a narrow fluid-filled interval between the dural and arachnoid; now known to be an artificial s. created by the separation of the arachnoid from the dura as the result of trauma or some ongoing pathologic process; in the healthy state, the arachnoid is attached to the dura and a naturally occurring subdural s. is not present.spatium subdurale [NA] , cavum subdurale, subdural cavity, subdural cleavage, subdural cleft;
subgingival s.gingival sulcus
superficial perineal s.the superficial compartment of the perineum; the space bounded above by the perineal membrane (inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm) and below by the superficial perineal (Colles') fascia; it contains the root structure of the penis or clitoris and associated musculature, plus the superficial transverse perineal muscle and, in the female only, the greater vestibular glands.spatium perinei superficiale [NA] , Colles' s., superficial perineal pouch;
suprahepatic s.'ssubphrenic recesses, under recess
suprasternal s.a narrow interval between the deep and superficial layers of the cervical fascia above the manubrium of the sternum through which pass the anterior jugular veins.Burns' s;
Tarin's s.interpeduncular cistern
Tenon's s.episcleral s
thenar s. See central palmar s.
Traube's semilunar s.a crescentic s. about 12 cm wide, bounded medially by the left border of the sternum, above by an oblique line from the sixth costal cartilage to the lower border of the eighth or ninth rib in the mid-axillary line and below by the costal margin; the percussion tone here is normally tympanitic, because of the underlying stomach, but is modified by pulmonary emphysema, a pleural effusion, or an enlarged spleen.
Trautmann's triangular s.the area of the temporal bone bounded by the sigmoid sinus, the superior petrosal sinus, and a tangent to the posterior semicircular canal.
vertebral epidural s. See dura mater of spinal cord.
Virchow-Robin s.a tunnel-like extension of the subarachnoid s. surrounding blood vessels that pass into the brain or spinal cord from the subarachnoid s.; the lining of the channel is composed of pia and glial feet of astrocytes; a continuation of the s. around capillaries and nerve cells probably does not occur.His' perivascular s;
Waldeyer's s.Waldeyer's sheath
Westberg's s.the s. surrounding the origin of the aorta which is invested with the pericardium.
zonular s.'sthe spaces between the fibers of the ciliary zonule at the equator of the lens of the eye.spatia zonularia [NA] , Petit's canals;


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