atrophy

atrophy (at´ro-fe)

A wasting of tissues, organs, or the entire body, as from death and reabsorption of cells, diminished cellular proliferation, decreased cellular volume, pressure, ischemia, malnutrition, lessened function, or hormonal changes.atrophia; [G. atrophia, fr. a- priv. + trophe, nourishment]
acute reflex bone a. Sudeck's a
acute yellow a. of the liver a lesion in which there is extensive and rapid death of parenchymal cells of the liver, sometimes with fatty degeneration of the size of the organ; the necrosis may result from fulminant viral infection or chemical poisoning; associated with jaundice.acute parenchymatous hepatitis, Rokitansky's disease (1);
alveolar a. diminution in size of the supportive tissues of the teeth due to lack of function, reduced blood supply, or unknown causes.
arthritic a. a. of muscles rendered inactive by a chronically inflamed or fixed joint.
blue a. depressed blue atrophic scars due to injections in the skin of impure substances, as seen in narcotics addicts.
brown a. a. of the heart wall, especially in the elderly, in which the muscle is dark reddish brown and reduced in volume; the muscle fibers become pigmented especially about the nuclei, by lipochrome granules.
Buchwald's a. a progressive form of cutaneous a.
central areolar choroidal a. areolar choroidopathy
cerebellar a. a degeneration of the cerebellum, particularly the Purkinje cells, as the result of abiotrophy or of toxic agents, as in alcoholism.
choroidal vascular a. a. affecting either all choroidal vessels or only the choriocapillaris, occurring either diffusely or confined to the posterior pole of the eye.
compensatory a. a. especially of an endocrine organ as a result of its function being assumed by a new source of hormone.
congenital cerebellar a. familial disorder that causes degeneration of various cells in the cerebellum. Two types are recognized, one in which the granular layer cells degenerate, the other in which the Purkinje cells degenerate.
cyanotic a. a. due to destruction of the parenchymatous cells of an organ as a consequence of chronic venous congestion.red a;
cyanotic a. of the liver a sequela of longstanding hepatic congestion due to high pressure in the right atrium as in chronic constrictive pericarditis and severe, protracted right ventricular failure.
dentatorubral cerebellar a. with polymyoclonus dyssynergia cerebellaris myoclonica
disuse a. muscle wasting caused by immobilization, such as casting.
Erb a. progressive muscular dystrophy
essential progressive a. of iris progressive a. of the iris without inflammatory signs, characterized by patchy loss of all layers of the iris with hole formation, migration of the pupil, degeneration of the corneal endothelium, peripheral anterior synechiae, and secondary glaucoma; usually unilateral, predominantly affecting women in their middle years.
exhaustion a. a., especially of glandular cells, believed to result from excessive functional activity or overstimulation.
facioscapulohumeral a. facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
familial spinal muscular a. infantile spinal muscular a
fatty a. fatty infiltration secondary to an a. of the essential elements of an organ or tissue.
gingival a. gingival recession
gyrate a. of choroid and retina [MIM*258870] a slowly progressive a. of the choriocapillaris, pigmentary epithelium, and sensory retina, with irregular confluent atrophic areas and an associated ornithinuria; autosomal recessive inheritance; due to a deficiency of ornithine delta-aminotransferase.
Hoffmann's muscular a. infantile spinal muscular a
horizontal a. a progressive loss of alveolar and supporting bone surrounding the teeth, beginning at the most coronal level of the bone.horizontal resorption;
Hunt's a. obsolete term for a. of the small muscles of the hand without sensory disturbances; two types are recognized: thenar, from compression of the thenar branch of the median nerve; hypothenar, from compression of the deep palmar branch of the ulnar nerve.
idiopathic muscular a. progressive muscular dystrophy
infantile muscular a. infantile spinal muscular a
infantile progressive spinal muscular a. infantile spinal muscular a
infantile spinal muscular a. [MIM*253300] transmitted as autosomal recessive on chromosome 5q. Progressive dysfunction of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and brainstem cranial nerves with profound weakness and bulbar dysfunction occurring in the first two years of life. Three groups, based on age of clinical onset, are recognized.familial spinal muscular a., Hoffmann's muscular a., infantile muscular a., infantile progressive spinal muscular a., progressive infantile spinal muscular a., Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, Werdnig-Hoffmann muscular a;
ischemic muscular a. See Volkmann's contracture.
juvenile muscular a. juvenile spinal muscular a
juvenile spinal muscular a. [MIM*253600] slowly progressive proximal muscular weakness and wasting, beginning in childhood, caused by degeneration of motor neurons in the anterior horns of the spinal cord; onset usually between 2 and 17 years of age; usually autosomal recessive inheritance.juvenile muscular a., Kugelberg-Welander disease, Wohlfart-Kugelberg-Welander disease;
Kienböck's a. acute a. of bone in an extremity following inflammation.
Leber's hereditary optic a. [MIM*308900] hereditary degeneration of the optic nerve and papillomacular bundle with resulting rapid loss of central vision, progressive for several weeks, then usually stationary with permanent central scotoma; age of onset is variable, most often in the third decade; more males than females are affected and transmission is cytoplasmic and strictly on the female side. Mutation on the mitochondrial chromosome involved, which presumably interacts with an X-linked mutant. This mechanism may explain the bizarre sex ratio, which differs significantly from one country to another.
linear a. striae cutis distensae, under stria
macular a. anetoderma
marantic a. marasmus
muscular a. wasting of muscular tissue. Cf. myopathic a. myatrophy, myoatrophy;
myopathic a. muscular a. caused by a primary disorder of muscle.
neuritic a. trophoneurotic a
neurogenic a. trophoneurotic a
neurotrophic a. trophoneurotic a
nutritional type cerebellar a. a restricted type of cerebellar cortical degeneration, affecting particularly the Purkinje cells of the anterior and superior vermis; probably caused by thiamin deficiency; most frequently seen in chronic alcoholics and then called alcoholic cerebellar degeneration.
olivopontocerebellar a. a group of genetically distinct, mostly autosomal dominant progressive neurologic diseases characterized by loss of neurons in the cerebellar cortex, basis pontis, and inferior olivary nuclei; results in ataxia, tremor, involuntary movement, and dysarthria; five clinical types (four with dominant, one with recessive inheritance) have been described, each type characterized by additional findings, such as sensory loss, retinal degeneration, ophthalmoplegia, and extrapyramidal signs. Several loci are involved, autosomal dominant [MIM*164400 to *164600] and recessive [MIM*258200].olivopontocerebellar degeneration;
periodontal a. decrease in size and/or cellular elements of the periodontium after it has reached normal maturity.
peroneal muscular a. [MIM*118200 to 118220] a group of three familial peripheral neuromuscular disorders, sharing the common feature of marked wasting of the more distal extremities, particularly the peroneal muscle groups, resulting in "stork legs." Two of the three subtypes are hereditary sensorimotor polyneuropathies, one demyelinating in type and the other axon loss in type, while the third subgroup is an anterior horn cell disorder. It usually involves the legs before the arms; pes cavus is often the first sign; autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked recessive types exist [MIM*302800 to *302908], with severity related to genetic type.Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease;
Pick's a. circumscribed a. of the cerebral cortex.lobar sclerosis, progressive circumscribed cerebral a;
postmenopausal a. a. following menopause, as of the genital organs.
pressure a. the wasting of hard or soft tissue resulting from excessive pressure applied to tissue by a denture base.
primary idiopathic macular a. anetoderma
primary macular a. of skin anetoderma
progressive choroidal a. choroideremia
progressive circumscribed cerebral a. Pick's a
progressive infantile spinal muscular a. infantile spinal muscular a
progressive muscular a. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
progressive spinal muscular a. one of the subgroups of motor neuron disease; a progressive degenerative disorder of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, manifested as progressive, often symmetrical, weakness and wasting, typically beginning in the distal portions of the limbs, particularly in the upper extremities, and spreading proximally; fasciculation potentials are often present, but evidence of corticospinal tract disease (e.g., increased deep tendon reflexes, Babinski sign) is not.
pulp a. diminution in size and/or cellular elements of the dental pulp due to interference with the blood supply.
red a. cyanotic a
scapulohumeral a. Vulpian's a
senile a. wasting of tissues and organs with advancing age from decreased catabolic or anabolic processes, at times due to endocrine changes, decreased use, or ischemia.geromarasmus;
serous a. a degenerative change occurring in fat cells, the fat being absorbed and its place being taken by a serous fluid.
striate a. of skin striae cutis distensae, under stria
Sudeck's a. a. of bones, commonly of the carpal or tarsal bones, following a slight injury such as a sprain. See also causalgia, reflex sympathetic dystrophy.acute reflex bone a., posttraumatic osteoporosis, Sudeck's syndrome; [L. English sweat]
traction a. striae cutis distensae, under stria
transneuronal a. transsynaptic degeneration
trophoneurotic a. abnormalities of the skin, hair, nails, subcutaneous tissues and bone, caused by peripheral nerve lesions.neuritic a., neurogenic a., neurotrophic a., trophic changes;
villous a. abnormality of the small intestinal mucosa with crypt hyperplasia, resulting in flattening of the mucosa and the appearance of a. of villi; clinically seen in malabsorption syndromes such as sprue.
Vulpian's a. progressive spinal muscular a. beginning in the shoulder.scapulohumeral a;
Werdnig-Hoffmann muscular a. infantile spinal muscular a
yellow a. of the liver See acute yellow a. of the liver.
Zimmerlin's a. a variety of hereditary progressive muscular a. in which the a. begins in the upper half of the body.

 

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