stain (stan)

1. To discolor. 2. To color; to dye. 3. A discoloration. 4. A dye used in histologic and bacteriologic technique. 5. A procedure in which a dye or combination of dyes and reagents is used to color the constituents of cells and tissues. For individual dyes or staining substances, see the specific names. [M.E. steinen]
Abbott's s. for sporesspores are stained blue with alkaline methylene blue; bodies of the bacilli become pink with eosin counterstain.
aceto-orcein s.a s. used for chromosomes in air-dried or squashed cytologic material.
acid s.a dye in which the anion is the colored component of the dye molecule, e.g., sodium eosinate (eosin).
Ag-AS s.silver-ammoniacal silver s
Albert's s.a s. for diphtheria bacilli and their metachromatic granules; contains toluidine blue, methyl green, glacial acetic acid, alcohol, and distilled water.
Altmann's anilin-acid fuchsin s.a mixture of picric acid, anilin, and acid fuchsin which stains mitochondria crimson against a yellow background.
auramine O fluorescent s.a rapid and accurate technique for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, using auramine O-phenol and a methylene blue counterstain.
basic s.a dye in which the cation is the colored component of the dye molecule that binds to anionic groups of nucleic acids (PO4=) or acidic mucopolysaccharides (e.g., chondroitin sulfate).
basic fuchsin-methylene blue s.a s. for intact epoxy sections; semi-thick sections of plastic-embedded tissues have nuclei stained purple; collagen, elastic lamina, and connective tissue are stained blue; mitochondria, myelin, and lipid droplets are stained red; cytoplasm, smooth muscle cells, axoplasm, and chrondroblasts are stained pink.
Bauer's chromic acid leucofuchsin s.a s. for glycogen and fungi utilizing chromic acid as an oxidizing agent of polysaccharides, followed by Schiff's reagent; glycogen and fungi cell walls appear deep red.
Becker's s. for spirochetesa s. applied to thin films fixed in formaldehyde-acetic acid; preparations are treated successively with tannin, carbolic acid, and carbol fuchsin.
Bennhold's Congo red amyloid s. useful for amyloid detection in pathologic tissue; gives red staining of amyloid; also induces green birefringence to amyloid under polarized light.
Berg's s.a method for staining spermatozoa, utilizing a carbol-fuchsin solution followed by dilute acetic acid and methylene blue; spermatozoa are stained a brilliant red and most other structures appear blue to purple.
Best's carmine s.a method for the demonstration of glycogen in tissues.
Bielschowsky's s.a method of treating tissues with silver nitrate to demonstrate reticular fibers, neurofibrils, axons, and dendrites.
Biondi-Heidenhain obsolete s. for spirochetes, using acid fuchsin and orange G.
Birch-Hirschfeld obsolete s. for demonstrating amyloid, using Bismarck brown and crystal violet; amyloid is usually stained a bright ruby red, whereas the cytoplasm of cells is not stained and nuclei are brown.
Bodian's copper-protargol s.a s. employing a silver proteinate complex (protargol) to demonstrate axis cylinders and neurofibrils.
Borrel's blue s.a s. for demonstrating spirochetes, treponemes, and Borrelia organisms, using silver oxide (prepared by means of mixing solutions of silver nitrate and sodium bicarbonate) and methylene blue.
Bowie's s.a s. for juxtaglomerular granules in which the kidney sections are stained in a mixture of Biebrich scarlet red and ethyl violet; juxtaglomerular granules and elastic fibers are stained a deep purple, erythrocytes are amber, and background tissue appears in shades of red.
Brown-Brenn s.a method for differential staining of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in tissue sections; it utilizes a modified Gram s. of crystal violet, Gram's iodine, and basic fuchsin.
Cajal's astrocyte s.a method for demonstrating astrocytes by impregnation in a solution containing gold chloride and mercuric chloride.
carbol-thionin s.a s. useful for demonstrating typhoid bacilli in films and sections, and for Nissl substance.
C-banding s.a selective chromosome banding s. used in human cytogenetics, employing Giemsa s. after most of the DNA is denatured or extracted by treatment with alkali, acid, salt, or heat; only heterochromatic regions close to the centromeres and rich in satellite DNA stain, with the exception of the Y chromosome whose long arm usually stains throughout.centromere banding s;
centromere banding s.C-banding s
chromate s. for leada method in which tissues preserved in chromate-containing fixatives, such as Regaud's or Orth's fixatives, precipitate lead as yellow lead chromate crystals; formalin-fixed sections are treated with potassium chromate acidified with acetic acid.
chrome alum hematoxylin-phloxine s.a s. used to demonstrate pancreatic islet cells; alpha cells appear red, beta cells blue or unstained.
Ciaccio's s.a method for demonstrating complex insoluble intra-cellular lipids using fixation in a formalin-dichromate solution, embedding in paraffin, staining with Sudan III or IV, and examination in aqueous mountant.
contrast s.a dye used to color one portion of a tissue or cell which remained unaffected when the other part was stained by a dye of different color.differential s;
Da Fano's s.a silver s. that produces a blackening of Golgi elements after tissues are fixed in a mixture of nitrate and formalin.
Dane's s.a s. for prekeratin, keratin, and mucin which employs hemalum, phloxine, Alcian blue, and orange G; nuclei appear orange to brown, acid mucopolysaccharides pale blue, and keratins orange to red-orange.
DAPI s.a sensitive fluorescent probe for DNA, 4´6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. 2HCl, used in fluorescence microscopy to detect DNA in yeast mitochondria, chloroplasts, viruses, mycoplasma, and chromosomes; DNA is visualized in vitally stained living cells and after cells are fixed in formaldehyde.
diazo s. for argentaffin granulesin enterochromaffin cells, a variety of diazonium salts are used to blacken the cells.
Dieterle's s.s. used to demonstrate spirochetes and Leishman-Donovan bodies; employs silver nitrate and uranium nitrate.
differential s.contrast s
double s.a mixture of two dyes, each of which stains different portions of a tissue or cell.
Ehrlich's acid hematoxylin alum type of hematoxylin s. used as a regressive staining method for nuclei, followed by differentiation to required staining intensity; the solution may be allowed to ripen naturally in sunlight or partially oxidized with sodium iodate.
Ehrlich's aniline crystal violet s.a s. for Gram-positive bacteria.
Ehrlich's triacid s.a differential leukocytic s. comprised of saturated solutions of orange G, acid fuchsin, and methyl green.
Ehrlich's triple s.a mixture of indulin, eosin Y, and aurantia.
Einarson's gallocyanin-chrome alum s.a method for staining both RNA and DNA a deep blue; with proper controls, nucleic acid content of stained cells and nuclei may be estimated by cytophotometry; also useful for Nissl substance.
Eranko's fluorescence s.exposure of frozen sections to formaldehyde which produces a strong yellow-green fluorescence from cells containing norepinephrine.
Feulgen s.a selective cytochemical reaction for DNA in which sections or cells are first hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid to produce apurinic acid and then are stained with Schiff's reagent to produce magenta-stained nuclei; generally the concentration of DNA in nucleoli and mitochondria is too low to permit detection by this s. See also Kasten's fluorescent Feulgen s.
Field's rapid s.a s. to permit rapid positive diagnosis of malaria in endemic areas by using thick films; it employs methylene blue and azure B in a phosphate buffer, with the preparation counterstained by eosin in a phosphate buffer.
Fink-Heimer s.a method used for histologic demonstration of degenerating nerve fibers and terminals of the central nervous system (black on a yellow background).
Flemming's triple s.a s. comprised of safranin, methyl violet, and orange G.
fluorescence plus Giemsa s.a s. used to demonstrate sister chromatid exchange; cells are grown in 5-bromodeoxyuridine, followed by chromosome preparation, staining in Hoechst 33258, exposure to light, and staining in Giemsa; chromosomes exhibit a "harlequin" appearance.
fluorescent s.a s. or staining procedure using a fluorescent dye or substance that will combine selectively with certain tissue components and that will then fluoresce upon irradiation with ultraviolet or violet-blue light.
Fontana-Masson silver s.Masson-Fontana ammoniacal silver s
Fontana's s.a traditional method for silver-impregnation of treponemes and other spirochetal forms.
Foot's reticulin impregnation s.a silver s. in which reticulin stains black and collagen stains golden brown; sections are floated on the surface of solutions to avoid contamination with silver debris.
Fouchet's s.fouchet's reagent employed to demonstrate bile pigments; paraffin sections are used for conjugated bile pigments, frozen sections for unconjugated ones.
Fraser-Lendrum s. for fibrina multistaining procedure after Zenker's fixative in which fibrin, keratin, and some cytoplasmic granules appear red, erythrocytes appear orange, and collagen appears green.
Friedländer's s. for capsulesan obsolete s. employing gentian violet.
G-banding s.a unique chromosome staining technique, used in human cytogenetics to identify individual chromosomes, which produces characteristic bands; it utilizes acetic acid fixation, air drying, denaturing chromosomes mildly with proteolytic enzymes, salts, heat, detergents, or urea, and finally Giemsa s.; chromosome bands appear similar to those fluorochromed by Q-banding s.Giemsa chromosome banding s;
Giemsa s.compound of methylene blue-eosin and methylene blue used for demonstrating Negri bodies, Tunga species, spirochetes and protozoans, and differential staining of blood smears; also used for chromosomes, sometimes after hydrolyzing the cytologic preparation in hot hydrochloric acid, and for showing chromosome G bands; often used in glycerol-methanol buffer solution.
Giemsa chromosome banding s.G-banding s
Glenner-Lillie s. for pituitarya modification of Mann's methyl blue-eosin s. which changes the dye proportions, buffering the dye mixture, and staining at 60°C; basophils are stained blue to black, acidophils are dark red, chromophobe granules are gray to pink, and erythrocytes are orange; with modification, the method is also useful for enterochromaffin cells, goblet cells, Paneth cells, and pancreatic islet cells.
Golgi's s.any of several methods for staining nerve cells, nerve fibers, and neuroglia using fixation and hardening in formalin-osmic-dichromate combinations for various times, followed by impregnation in silver nitrate.
Gomori-Jones periodic acid-methenamine-silver s.a staining method using methenamine silver, periodic acid, gold chloride, hematoxylin, and eosin to delineate basement membrane, reticulin, collagen, and nuclei; used in renal histopathology. See also Rambourg's periodic acid-chromic methenamine-silver s.
Gomori's aldehyde fuchsin s.a s. used to demonstrate beta cells of the pancreas, storage form of thyrotrophic hormone in beta cells of the anterior pituitary, hypophyseal neurosecretory substance, mast cells, granules, elastic fibers, sulfated mucins, and gastric chief cells.
Gomori's chrome alum hematoxylin-phloxine s.a technique used to demonstrate cytoplasmic granules, after Bouin's or formalin-Zenker fixatives, using oxidized hematoxylin plus phloxine; in the pancreas, beta cells are blue, alpha and delta cells are red, and zymogen granules are red to unstained; in the pituitary, alpha cells are pink, beta cells and chromophobes are gray-blue, and nuclei are purple to blue.
Gomori's methenamine-silver s.'s (GMS) , GMS s.techniques for 1) argentaffin cells: a method using a methenamine-silver solution in combination with gold chloride, sodium thiosulphate, and safranin O; argentaffin granules appear brown-black against a green background; 2) urates: warm sections are treated directly with a hot methenamine-silver solution to produce a blackening of urates; 3) fungi: see Grocott-Gomori methenamine-silver s.; 4) melanin, which reduces silver nitrate.
Gomori's nonspecific acid phosphatase s.a method in which formalin-fixed frozen sections are incubated in a substrate containing sodium beta-glycerophosphate and lead nitrate at pH 5.0; the insoluble lead phosphate produced is treated with ammonium sulfide to give a black lead sulfide.
Gomori's nonspecific alkaline phosphatase s.a calcium-cobalt sulfide method using frozen sections or cold acetone- or formalin-fixed paraffin sections, plus sodium beta-glycerophosphate as a substrate at pH 9.0 to 9.5 with Mg++ as activator; calcium ions precipitate the liberated phosphate, cobalt salt replaces the calcium phosphate, and ammonium sulfide converts the product to a black cobalt sulfide.
Gomori's one-step trichrome s.a connective tissue s. that uses hematoxylin and a dye mixture containing chromotrope 2R and light green or aniline blue; muscle fibers appear red, collagen is green (or blue if aniline blue is used), and nuclei are blue to black.
Gomori's silver impregnation s.a reliable method for reticulin, as an aid in the diagnosis of neoplasm and early cirrhosis of the liver; the staining solution employs silver nitrate, potassium hydroxide, and ammonia water carefully prepared to avoid having silver precipitate.
Goodpasture's s.a s. for Gram-negative bacteria, using aniline fuchsin.
Gordon and Sweet s.a s. for reticulin, using acidified potassium permanganate, oxalic acid, iron alum, silver nitrate, formaldehyde, gold chloride, and sodium thiosulfate.
Gram's s.a method for differential staining of bacteria; smears are fixed by flaming, stained in a solution of crystal violet, treated with iodine solution, rinsed, decolorized, and then counterstained with safranin O; Gram-positive organisms stain purple black and Gram-negative organisms stain pink; useful in bacterial taxonomy and identification, and also in indicating fundamental differences in cell wall structure.
green s.a deposit, produced by chromogenic bacteria, found on the cervicolabial portions of the teeth, usually in children. See also acquired pellicle.
Gridley's s.a silver staining method for reticulum.
Gridley's s. for fungia method for fixed tissue sections based on Bauer's chromic acid leucofuchsin s. with the addition of Gomori's aldehyde fuchsin s. and metanil yellow as counterstains; against a yellow background, hyphae, conidia, yeast capsules, elastin, and mucin appear in different shades of blue to purple.
Grocott-Gomori methenamine-silver s.a modification of Gomori's methenamine-silver s. for fungi in which sections are pretreated with chromic acid before addition of the methenamine-silver solution and then counterstained with light green to demonstrate black-brown fungi against a pale green background.
Hale's colloidal iron s.a s. used to distinguish acid mucopolysaccharides such as hyaluronic acid; may be combined with PAS to also visualize carbohydrate-containing proteins and glycoproteins.
Heidenhain's azan s.a technique using azocarmine B or G followed by aniline blue to stain nuclei and erythrocytes red, muscle orange, glia fibrils reddish, mucin blue, and collagen and reticulum dark blue. [azocarmine + aniline blue]
Heidenhain's iron hematoxylin iron alum hematoxylin s. used for staining muscle striations and mitotic structures blue-black.
hematoxylin and eosin s.probably the most generally useful of all staining methods for tissues; nuclei are stained a deep blue-black with hematoxylin, and cytoplasm is stained pink after counterstaining with eosin, usually in water.
hematoxylin-malachite green-basic fuchsin s.a s. for epoxy resin-extracted sections; semi-thick sections have their plastic dissolved out and the residual tissue is stained sequentially with the various dyes; nuclei and astrocytes are purplish-pink and myelin, lipid droplets, nucleoli, and oligodendrocytes are bright blue-green.
hematoxylin-phloxine B s.a s. for intact epoxy sections; semi-thick sections of plastic-embedded tissues have the following structures stained blue to black; chromatin, nucleoli, basophilic cytoplasm, mitochondria, plasma and nuclear membranes, anisotropic myofibrils, mast cell granules, and elastic membranes of blood vessels; appearing pink to red are collagen fibrils, reticulum, goblet cell mucins, hyalin cartilage matrix, stereocilia, cytoplasm, and erythrocytes; fat droplets and perichondrocyte matrix are green.
Hirsch-Peiffer s.a s. used for cytologic demonstration staining of metachromatic leukodystrophy; excess sulfatides stain metachromatically (golden brown) with cresyl violet in acetic acid.
Hiss' s.a s. for demonstrating the capsules of microorganisms, using gentian violet or basic fuchsin followed by a copper sulphate wash.
Holmes' s.a silver nitrate staining method for nerve fibers.
Hortega's neuroglia of several silver carbonate methods to demonstrate astrocytes, oligodendroglia, and microglia.
Hucker-Conn s.a crystal violet-ammonium oxalate mixture used in Gram's stain.
immunofluorescent s.s. resulting from combination of fluorescent antibody with antigen specific for the antibody portion of the fluorochrome conjugate.
India ink capsule s.a negative s. for crystal bacteria in which cells appear purple (Gram's crystal violet) and the capsules appear clear against a dark background.
intravital s.a s. which is taken up by living cells after parenteral administration, e.g., intravenously or subcutaneously.
iodine s.a s. to detect amyloid, cellulose, chitin, starch, carotenes, and glycogen, and to stain amebas by virtue of their glycogen; feces and other wet preparations are stained directly with Lugol's iodine solution; smears are treated with Schaudinn's fixative and then stained with alcoholic iodine, followed by Heidenhain's iron hematoxylin.
Jenner's s.a methylene blue eosinate similar to Wright's s. but differing in not using polychromed methylene blue; used for staining of blood smears.
Kasten's fluorescent Feulgen s.a fluorescent modification of the Feulgen s., utilizing any one of a variety of fluorescent basic dyes to which SO2 is added; the brilliant fluorescence makes this method unusually sensitive and adaptable to cytofluorometric quantification of DNA.
Kasten's fluorescent PAS s.a fluorescent modification of the periodic acid Schiff s. for polysaccharides which uses one of Kasten's fluorescent Schiff reagents.
Kinyoun s.a method for demonstrating acid-fast microorganisms, using carbol fuchsin, acid alcohol, and methylene blue; acid-fast microorganisms appear red against a blue background.
Kleihauer's s.a combination of aniline blue and Biebrich scarlet red used for detection of fetal cells in the maternal blood.
Klinger-Ludwig acid-thionin s. for sex chromatina method using a preliminary acid treatment on buccal smears, prior to staining with buffered thionin, to differentiate Barr body.
Klüver-Barrera Luxol fast blue combination with cresyl violet, a s. useful for demonstrating myelin and Nissl substance.
Kossa s.von Kossa s
Kronecker's s.a 5% sodium chloride s. rendered faintly alkaline with sodium carbonate, used in the examination of fresh tissues under the microscope.
Laquer's s. for alcoholic hyalina combination of Altmann's aniline-acid fuchsin s. with a Masson trichrome s. which, on a gray-brown background, stains alcoholic hyalin red, collagen green, and nuclei brown.
lead hydroxide s.a s. for electron microscopy; after aldehyde fixation, alkaline lead hydroxide preferentially stains RNA, but after OsO4 fixation, it reacts largely with osmium in tissues to give a general s.; in addition to binding to cytomembranes, it also stains carbohydrates (e.g., glycogen).
Leishman's s.a polychromed eosin-methylene blue s. used in the examination of blood films.
Lendrum's phloxine-tartrazine s.a s. for demonstrating acidophilic inclusion bodies, which appear red on a yellow background; nuclei stain blue, but Negri bodies do not stain.
Lepehne-Pickworth s.a staining technique for hemoglobin and other heme-containing substances in cryostat or frozen sections, which utilizes the presence of tissue peroxidase to oxidize benzidine to a blue quinhydrone.
Levaditi s.a silver nitrate s. for blackening spirochetes in tissue sections.
Lillie's allochrome connective tissue s.a procedure using PAS, hematoxylin, picric acid, and methyl blue; used for distinction between basement membrane and reticulin, and for demonstration of arteriosclerotic lesions.
Lillie's azure-eosin s.a s. in which an azure eosinate solution is used to s. bacteria and rickettsiae in tissues.
Lillie's ferrous iron s.a method using potassium ferrocyanide in acetic acid which demonstrates melanins as a deep green color; lipofuscins and heme pigments are unreactive.
Lillie's sulfuric acid Nile blue s.a technique for showing fatty acids when present in high concentrations.
Lison-Dunn s.a technique using leuco patent blue V and hydrogen peroxidase to demonstrate hemoglobin peroxidase on time sections and smears.
Loeffler's s.a s. for flagella; the specimen is treated with a mixture of ferrous sulfate, tannic acid, and alcoholic fuchsin, then stained with aniline-water fuchsin or gentian violet made alkaline with sodium hydroxide solution.
Loeffler's caustic s.a s. for flagella, utilizing an aqueous solution of tannin and ferrous sulfate with the addition of an alcoholic fuchsin s.
Luna-Ishak s.a staining method using celestine blue and acid fuchsin in which bile canaliculi s. pink to red.
Macchiavello's s.a basic fuchsin-citric acid-methylene blue sequence in smears which produces red staining of rickettsiae and inclusion bodies, with nuclei staining blue.
MacNeal's tetrachrome blood s.a s. for blood smears comprised of a mixture of methylene blue, azure A, methylene violet, and eosin Y.
malarial pigment s.a s. using phloxine-toluidine blue O sequence; malarial pigment and nuclei are bluish, erythrocytes and cytoplasm are red to orange; found in phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system.
Maldonado-San Jose s.a staining method for staining pancreatic islet cells, using a phloxine-azure B-hematoxylin sequence; alpha cells are purple, beta cells are violet-blue, delta cells are light blue, and exocrine cells are grayish blue with red secretion granules.
Mallory's s. for actinomycesa s. using alum hematoxylin, followed by eosin; immersion in Ehrlich's aniline crystal violet s., and Weigert's iodine solution; mycelia stain blue and clubs stain red.
Mallory's aniline blue s.Mallory's trichrome s
Mallory's collagen of a number of staining methods using phosphomolybdic or phosphotungstic acid with an acid stain, such as aniline blue, or with hematoxylin for connective tissue staining.
Mallory's s. for hemofuchsinsections are stained sequentially in alum hematoxylin and basic fuchsin; the lipofuchsin-like pigment and ceroid stain bright red, nuclei stain blue, while melanin and hemosiderin appear unstained in their natural browns.
Mallory's iodine s.amyloid appears red-brown after Gram's iodine, then violet and blue after flooding with dilute sulfuric acid.
Mallory's phloxine s.a technique based on retention of phloxine by hyaline after overstaining and then decolorizing with lithium carbonate, used in combination with alum hematoxylin to give nuclear staining; hyaline appears red, older hyaline is pink to colorless, amyloid is pale pink, and nuclei are blue-black.
Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin s.phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin
Mallory's trichrome s.a method especially suitable for studying connective tissue; sections are stained in acid fuchsin, aniline blue-orange G solution, and phosphotungstic acid; fibrils of collagen are blue, fibroglia, neuroglia, and muscle fibers are red, and fibrils of elastin are pink or yellow.Mallory's aniline blue s., Mallory's triple s;
Mallory's triple s.Mallory's trichrome s
Mann's methyl blue-eosin s.a s. useful for anterior pituitary and viral inclusion bodies; a mixture of the two dyes stains alpha cell granules red, beta cell granules dark blue, chromophobes gray to pink, colloid red, erythrocytes orange-red, and collagen fibers blue; this method is also useful for enterochromaffin, goblet, Paneth, and pancreatic islet cells; Negri bodies appear red while their nuclei and central granules are blue.
Marchi's s.a staining method in which the specimen is hardened for 8 to 10 days in a modified Müller's fixative, followed by immersion for 1 to 3 weeks in the same with the addition of osmic acid; fat and degenerating nerve fibers stain black.
Masson-Fontana ammoniacal silver s.a s. used to demonstrate melanin and argentaffin granules.Fontana-Masson silver s;
Masson's argentaffin s.a s. used to stain enterochromaffin granules brown-black.
Masson's trichrome s.original composition for multicolored tissue preparations included Ponceau de xylidine, acid fuchsin, iron alum hematoxylin, and either aniline blue or fast green FCF; chromatin stains black, cytoplasm is in shades of red, granules of eosinophils and mast cells are deep red, erythrocytes are black, elastic fibers are red, and collagen fibers and mucus are dark blue (aniline blue) or green (fast green FCF); modifications substitute other dyes, such as Biebrich scarlet red and wool green S.
Maximow's s. for bone marrowan alum-hematoxylin and azure II-eosin s. used to distinguish granulated leukocytes, mast cells, and cartilage.
Mayer's hemalum s.a progressive nuclear s. also used as a counterstain.
Mayer's mucicarmine s. See mucicarmine.
Mayer's mucihematein s. See mucihematein.
May-Grünwald s.a German equivalent of Jenner's s., used for blood staining and in cytology; often used in combination with Giemsa s.; valuable in demonstrating parasitic flagellates.
metachromatic s.a s., such as methylene blue, thionin, or azure A, that has the ability to produce different colors with various histological or cytological structures.
methyl green-pyronin s.a staining method useful for identification of plasma cells which are intensely pyroninophilic; a mixture of a green and a red dye that has the property of staining highly polymerized nucleic acid (DNA) green and low molecular weight nucleic acids (RNA) red. See Unna-Pappenheim s.
Mowry's colloidal iron s.a s. used for demonstrating acid mucopolysaccharides.
MSB trichrome s.a s. for fibrin using martius yellow, brilliant crystal scarlet 6R, and soluble blue; fibrin is selectively stained red and connective tissue appears blue.
multiple s.a mixture of several dyes each having an independent selective action on one or more portions of the tissue.
Nakanishi's s.a method for vital staining of bacteria in which a slide is treated with hot methylene blue solution until it acquires a sky-blue color, after which a drop of an emulsion of the bacteria is put on the cover glass and the latter laid on the slide; the bacteria are stained differentially, some parts more intensely than others.
Nauta's s.a s. for degenerating axons in which they stain with silver and appear as fragmented and swollen fibers.
negative s.s. forming an opaque or colored background against which the object to be demonstrated appears as a translucent or colorless area; in electron microscopy, an electron opaque material, such as phosphotungstic acid or sodium phosphotungstate, is used to give detail as to surface structure.
Neisser's s.a s. for the polar nuclei of the diphtheria bacillus which uses a mixture of methylene blue and crystal violet.
neutral s.a compound of an acid s. and a basic s., such as the eosinate of methylene blue, in which the anion and cation each contains a chromophore group.salt dye;
Nicolle's s. for capsuless. in a mixture of a saturated solution of gentian violet in alcohol-phenol.
ninhydrin-Schiff s. for proteinsproteins are revealed by using ninhydrin or alloxan to produce aldehydes from primary aliphatic amines by oxidative deamination; the aldehydes are shown by reaction with Schiff's reagent.
Nissl's s. 1. a method for staining nerve cells with basic fuchsin; 2. a method for staining aggregates of rough endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes in neuronal cell bodies and dendrites with basic dyes such as cresyl violet (or cresyl echt violet), thionine, toluidin blue O, or methylene blue.
Noble's s.a basic fuchsin-orange G staining technique for detection of viral inclusion bodies in fixed tissues.
nuclear s.a s. for cell nuclei, usually based on the binding of a basic dye to DNA or nucleohistone.
Orth's s.a lithium carmine s. for nerve cells and their processes.
Padykula-Herman s. for myosin ATPasea technique similar to that of Gomori's nonspecific alkaline phosphatase s., except that incubation is carried out with ATP as the substrate at pH 9.4 in the absence of Mg++; enzyme activity is demonstrated as blackened deposits in the A band of striated muscle sarcomeres; control tissue sections lacking substrate and containing sulfhydryl inhibitors are necessary.
Paget-Eccleston aldehyde-thionin-PAS-orange G staining technique modified to identify seven different cell types in the anterior pituitary gland.
panoptic s.a s. in which a Romanowsky-type s. is combined with another s.; such a combination improves the staining of cytoplasmic granules and other bodies.
Papanicolaou s.a multichromatic s. used principally on exfoliated cytologic specimens and based on aqueous hematoxylin with multiple counterstaining dyes in 95% ethyl alcohol, giving great transparency and delicacy of detail; important in cancer screening, especially of gynecologic smears.
Pappenheim's s.a method for differentiating tubercle and smegma bacilli; the preparation is stained with hot carbol-fuchsin solution, then treated with an alcoholic solution of rosolic acid and methylene blue to which glycerin is added; tubercle bacilli are stained bright red, but smegma bacilli are decolorized.
paracarmine s.a staining fluid consisting of a solution of calcium chloride and carminic acid in 75% alcohol.
PAS s.periodic acid-Schiff s
periodic acid-Schiff s. (PAS) a tissue-staining procedure in which 1,2-glycol groupings are first oxidized with periodic acid to aldehydes, which then react with the sulfite leucofuchsin reagent of Schiff, and become colored red-violet; strong staining occurs with polysaccharides, such as glycogen, and mucopolysaccharides of epithelial mucins, basement membranes, and connective tissue.PAS s;
Perls' Prussian blue s.a s. for ferric iron as in hemosiderins, using potassium ferrocyanide in acetic acid or dilute hydrochloric acid followed by a red counterstain such as safranin O or neutral red; various hemosiderins and most mineral irons give a blue-green reaction, while nuclei stain red.
peroxidase s.a method for demonstrating peroxidase granules in some neutrophils and in eosinophils; the enzyme promotes the oxidation of benzidine by hydrogen peroxide; tissues treated with horseradish peroxidase can also have the enzyme detected in the electron microscope.
phosphotungstic acid s.the first general s. used for electron microscopy; a selective s. for extracellular components such as elastin, collagen, and basement membrane mucopolysaccharides; it can be followed by uranyl acetate or lead.PTA s;
picrocarmine s.a red crystalline powder derived from a solution of carmine, ammonia, and picric acid which is evaporated, leaving the powder (soluble in water); it produces excellent staining of keratohyaline granules.
picro-Mallory trichrome s.a modification of Mallory's trichrome s. that involves the addition of picric acid.
picronigrosin s.a solution of nigrosin in picric acid, used for staining connective tissue.
plasma s., plasmatic s., plasmic s.a s. whose principal affinity is for the cytoplasm of cells.
plastic section s. 1. for electron microscopy, a s. (e.g., osmic acid, PTA, potassium permanganate) used on thin sections of plastic-embedded tissues, utilizing differential attachment of heavy atoms to various cellular and tissue structures so that electrons will be absorbed and scattered by these structures to produce an image; to achieve differential staining, the s. must penetrate nonwettable plastic embedments; 2. for light microscopy, a s. (e.g., alkaline toluidine blue, silver methenamine) used on plastic-embedded tissues to attain higher resolution and more detail than normally possible; semi-thick (0.5-1.5 mum) sections are particularly useful in renal pathology, especially in combination with the phase microscope.
port-wine s.nevus flammeus
positive binding of a dye with a tissue component to produce contrast; in electron microscopy, heavy metals like uranyl and lead salts are used to bind to selective cell constituents to produce increased density to the electron beam, i.e., contrast.
Prussian blue s.a s. employing acid potassium ferrocyanide to demonstrate iron, as in siderocytes.
PTA s.phosphotungstic acid s
Puchtler-Sweat s. for basement membranesa staining method using resorcin-fuchsin and nuclear fast red solutions after Carnoy's fixative; basement membranes are gray to black and nuclei pink to red.
Puchtler-Sweat s. for hemoglobin and hemosiderina complex staining method in which, on a yellow background, hemoglobin is stained red, hemosiderin blue to green and elastic fibers are pink.
Q-banding s.a fluorescent s. for chromosomes which produces specific banding patterns for each pair of homologous chromosomes; the acridine dye derivative, quinacrine hydrochloride, or other derivatives like quinacrine mustard dihydrochloride produces a green-yellow fluorescence at pH 4.5 in chromosome segments rich in constitutive heterochromatin with deoxyadenylate-deoxythymidilate (A-T) bases of DNA; centromeric regions of human chromosomes 3, 4, and 13 are specifically stained, as are satellites of some acrocentric chromosomes and the end of the long arm of the Y chromosome; banding patterns are similar to those obtained with G-banding stain; similar fluorescent s. results are seen with the antibiotics adriamycin and daunomycin, as well as the tertiary dyes butyl proflavine and dapi, and the bisbenzimidazole dye hoechst 33258.quinacrine chromosome banding s;
quinacrine chromosome banding s.Q-banding s
Rambourg's chromic acid-phosphotungstic acid s.a s. for glycoproteins, used with an electron microscope, with which ultrathin tissue sections reveal complex carbohydrates in the same locations as shown by Rambourg's periodic acid-chromic methenamine-silver s.
Rambourg's periodic acid-chromic methenamine-silver s.a s. for glycoproteins, used with an electron microscope, adapted from the Gomori-Jones periodic acid-methenamine-silver s.; it produces silver deposits in mature saccules of the Golgi apparatus, lysosomal vesicles, cell coat, and basement membranes.
R-banding s.a reverse Giemsa chromosome banding method that produces bands complementary to G-bands; induced by treatment with high temperature, low pH, or acridine orange staining; often used together with G-banding on human karyotype to determine whether there are deletions.
Romanowsky's blood s.prototype of the eosin-methylene blue s.'s for blood smears, using aqueous solutions made of a mixture of methylene blue (saturated) and eosin. Romanowsky-type s.'s depend for their action on compounds formed by interaction of methylene blue and eosin; most are of no value if water is present in the alcohol because neutral dyes become precipitated.
Roux's s.a double s. for diphtheria bacilli which employs crystal violet or dahlia and methyl green.
Schaeffer-Fulton s.a s. for bacterial spores using malachite green and safranin so that bacterial bodies are red to pink and spores are green.
Schmorl's ferric-ferricyanide reduction s.a s. to test for reducing substances in tissues, including melanin, argentaffin granules, thyroid colloid, keratin, keratohyalin, and lipofuscin pigments; ferricyanide is converted into ferrocyanide which is converted to insoluble Prussian blue in the presence of ferric ions.
Schmorl's picrothionin s.a s. for compact bone which employs thionin and picric acid solutions to produce blue to blue-black staining of bone canaliculi and cells; bone matrix is yellowish and cartilage ground substance is purple.
Schultz s.a s. for cholesterol; a relatively specific but insensitive histochemical test for cholesterol and cholesterol esters in which frozen sections of formalin-fixed tissues are oxidized in iron alum, hydrogen peroxide, or sodium iodate, then treated with sulfuric acid to give a blue-green to red color in a positive reaction; the presence of glycerol inhibits the reaction.
selective s.a s. that colors one portion of a tissue or cell exclusively or more deeply than the remaining portions.
silver s.any of a variety of s.'s (e.g., Bielschowsky's, Gomori's silver, impregnation s.'s) which employ alkaline silver nitrate solutions to stain connective tissue fibers (reticulin, collagen), calcium salt deposits, spirochaetes, neurological tissue, and nucleolar organizer regions.
silver-ammoniacal silver s.a s. for the acid protein component of nucleolar regions which are active or which were transcriptionally active in the preceding interphase; uses silver nitrate, ammoniacal silver, and formalin.Ag-AS s;
silver protein s.a silver proteinate complex used in staining nerve fibers, nerve endings, and flagellate protozoa; also used to demonstrate phagocytosis in living animals by the cells of the reticuloendothelial system.
Stirling's modification of Gram's s.a stable aniline-crystal violet s.
supravital s.a procedure in which living tissue is removed from the body and cells are placed in a nontoxic dye solution so that their vital processes may be studied.
Taenzer's orcein solution used for staining elastic tissue.Unna-Taenzer s;
Takayama's s.a s. containing pyridine, sodium hydrate, and dextrose; used for identification of blood stains; a drop added to a suspected blood stain results in the formation of hemochromogen crystals.
telomeric R-banding s.a modified R-banding s. in which the telomeres become strongly stained and faint R-banding still occurs over the rest of the chromosomes; uses air-dried slides, aging for several days, and staining in hot phosphate-buffered Giemsa s.
thioflavine T s.a s. employed to detect amyloid, which induces specific yellow fluorescence; tissue sections are first put in alum-hematoxylin to quench nuclear fluorescence and then stained in thioflavine T.
Tizzoni's s.a s. used as a test for iron in tissue; the tissue is treated with a solution of potassium ferrocyanide and then with dilute hydrochloric acid; a blue coloration indicates the presence of iron.
Toison's s.a blood diluent and leukocyte stain containing methyl violet, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and glycerin; also used for erythrocyte counts.
trichrome s.staining combinations which usually contain three dyes of contrasting colors selected to stain connective tissue, muscle, cytoplasm, and nuclei in bright colors; generally, tissue sections are first dyed in iron hematoxylin before being treated with the other dyes.
trypsin G-banding s. See G-banding s.
Unna-Pappenheim s.a contrast s. consisting of a methyl green-pyronin solution; originally used for gonococci, but later used to detect RNA and DNA in tissue sections; RNA is stained red and DNA appears green; used to demonstrate plasma cells during chronic inflammation. See methyl green-pyronin s.
Unna's s. 1. an alkaline methylene blue s. for plasma cells; 2. a polychrome methylene blue s. with which mast cells are stained red (metachromatic).
Unna-Taenzer s.Taenzer's s
uranyl acetate s.a s. used in electron microscopy; uranyl acetate binds specifically to nucleic acids but selectively tends to be abolished by osmium fixation; proteins are well stained, but cytomembranes are poorly stained.
urate crystals s.a s. using silver methenamine to detect crystals, which polarize light in contrast with calcium crystals; useful in diagnosing gout and kidney infarcts resulting from uric acid build-up.
van Ermengen's s.a method for staining flagella which utilizes glacial acetic acid, osmic acid, tannic acid, silver nitrate, gallic acid, and potassium acetate.
van Gieson's s.a mixture of acid fuchsin in saturated picric acid solution, used in collagen staining.
Verhoeff's elastic tissue s.a s. for tissue sections in which a mixture of hematoxylin, ferric chloride, and Lugol's iodine solution is used; tissue may be counterstained, if desired, with eosin or van Gieson's s.; elastic fibers and nuclei appear blue-black to black while collagen and other components are shades of pink to red.
vital s.a s. applied to cells or parts of cells while they are still living.
von Kossa s.a s. for calcium in mineralized tissue, utilizing a silver nitrate solution followed by sodium thiosulfate; calcified bone but not osteoid is stained brown to black.Kossa s;
Wachstein-Meissel s. for calcium-magnesium-ATPasea method similar to that of Gomori's nonspecific acid phosphatase s., except that incubation is carried out with ATP as substrate at neutral pH; enzyme activity is generally demonstrated at cell membranes.
Warthin-Starry silver s.a s. for spirochetes in which preparations are incubated in 1% silver nitrate solution followed by a developer.
Weigert-Gram s.a s. for bacteria in tissues in which sections are stained in alum-hematoxylin, then in eosin, aniline methyl violet, and Lugol's solution.
Weigert's s. for actinomycesa staining method using immersion in a dark red orsellin solution in alcohol, then staining in crystal-violet solution. See also iron hematoxylin.
Weigert's s. for elastina staining solution of fuchsin, resorcin, and ferric chloride; elastic fibers stain blue-black.
Weigert's s. for fibrina staining method using solutions of aniline-crystal violet and iodine-potassium iodide, then decolorizing in aniline oil and xylol; the fibrin is stained dark blue.
Weigert's iron hematoxylin s.a nuclear staining solution containing hematoxylin, ferric chloride, and hydrochloric acid; useful in combination with von Gieson's s., especially for demonstrating connective tissue elements or Entamoeba histolytica in sections.
Weigert's s. for myelina staining method using ferric chloride and hematoxylin; myelin stains deep blue, degenerated portions a light yellowish color.
Weigert's s. for neurogliaa complicated process in which the final treatment is like that for staining fibrin; neuroglia and nuclei stain blue.
Wilder's s. for reticuluma silver impregnation technique in which reticulum appears as black, well-defined fibers without beading and with a relatively clear background.
Williams' s.a s. for Negri bodies which utilizes picric acid, fuchsin, and methylene blue; Negri bodies are magenta, granules and nerve cells blue, and erythrocytes yellowish.
Wright's s.a staining mixture of eosinates of polychromed methylene blue used in staining of blood smears.
Ziehl-Neelsen s.a method for staining acid-fast bacteria using Ziehl's s., decolorizing in acid alcohol, and counterstaining with methylene blue; acid-fast organisms appear red, other tissue elements light blue; a modification of this s. is also used for Actinomycetes and Brucella.
Ziehl's s.a carbol-fuchsin solution of phenol and basic fuchsin used to demonstrate bacteria and cell nuclei.


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