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streptococcus, pl. streptococci (strep´to-kok´us, -kok´sI)

A term used to refer to any member of the genus Streptococcus.
a-streptococcistreptococci that form a green variety of reduced hemoglobin in the area of the colony on a blood agar medium.
group A streptococcia common bacteria that is the cause of strep throat, scarlet fever, impetigo, cellulitis-erysipelas, rheumatic fever, acute glomerular nephritis, endocarditis, and group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis. The prototype is Streptococcus pyogenes.
group B streptococcia leading cause of a form of neonatal sepsis that has a 10-20% mortality rate and leaves a large number of survivors with brain damage. Also a leading cause of meningitis.
hemolytic streptococcibeta-hemolytic streptococci
beta-hemolytic streptococcithose that produce active hemolysins (O and S) which cause a zone of clear hemolysis on the blood agar medium in the area of the colony; beta-hemolytic streptococci are divided into groups (A to O) on the basis of cell wall C carbohydrate (see Lancefield classification); Group A (in the strains pathogenic for man) comprises more than 50 types (designated by Arabic numerals) determined by cell wall M protein, which seems to be associated closely with virulence and is produced chiefly by strains with matt or mucoid colonies, in contrast to nonvirulent, glossy colony-producing strains; other surface protein antigens such as R and T (T substance), and the nucleoprotein fraction (P substance) seem to be of less importance. The more than 20 extracellular substances elaborated by strains of beta-hemolytic streptococci include erythrogenic toxin (elaborated only by lysogenic strains), deoxyribonuclease (streptodornase), hemolysins (streptolysins O and S), hyaluronidase, and streptokinase.hemolytic streptococci;


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