surgery (ser´jer-e)

1. The branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disease, injury, and deformity by operation or manipulation. 2. The performance or procedures of an operation. [L. chirurgia; G. cheir, hand, + ergon, work]
ambulatory s.operative procedures performed on patients who are admitted to and discharged from a hospital on the same day.
aseptic s.the performance of an operation with sterilized hands, instruments, etc., and utilizing precautions against the introduction of infectious microorganisms from without.
closed s.s. without incision into skin, e.g., reduction of a fracture or dislocation.
cosmetic s.s. in which the principal purpose is to improve the appearance, usually with the connotation that the improvement sought is beyond the normal appearance, and its acceptable variations, for the age and the ethnic origin of the patient.esthetic s;
craniofacial s.simultaneous s. on the cranium and facial bones.
esthetic s.cosmetic s
featural s.rarely used term for plastic s. of the face, for correction or improvement of appearance.
keratorefractive s.refractive keratoplasty
laparoscopic s.operative procedure performed using minimally invasive surgical technique for exposure that avoids traditional incision. Visualization is achieved using a fiber optic instrument, usually attached to a video camera.
laparoscopically assisted s.operative procedure performed using combined laparoscopic and open techniques; most commonly applied to colon or small intestinal resections with anastomosis.
major s. See major operation.
microscopically controlled s.Mohs' chemosurgery
minimally invasive s.operative procedure performed in a manner derived to result in the smallest possible incision or no incision at all; includes laparoscopic, laparoscopically assisted, thoracoscopic, and endoscopic surgical procedures.
minor s. See minor operation.
Mohs' s.Mohs' chemosurgery
Mohs' micrographic s.Mohs' chemosurgery
open heart s.operative procedure(s) performed on or within the exposed heart, usually with cardiopulmonary bypass (as opposed to closed heart surgery).
oral s.the branch of dentistry concerned with the diagnosis and surgical and adjunctive treatment of diseases, injuries, and deformities of the oral and maxillofacial region.
orthognathic s.surgical orthodontics
orthopaedic s.the branch of s. that embraces the treatment of acute and chronic disorders of the musculoskeletal system, including injuries, diseases, dysfunction and deformities (orig. deformities in children) in the extremities and spine. See also orthopaedics.
plastic s.the surgical specialty or procedure concerned with the restoration, construction, reconstruction, or improvement in the shape and appearance of body structures that are missing, defective, damaged, or misshapen.
reconstructive s. See plastic s.
stereotactic s.stereotaxy
stereotaxic s.stereotaxy
thoracoscopic s.s. done using one or more endoscopic instruments.
transsexual s.procedures designed to alter a patient's external sexual characteristics so that they resemble those of the other sex.
video-assisted thoracic s. (VATS) a less morbid alternative to "open" thoracotomy that employs cameras, optic systems, percutaneous stapling devices, and assorted endoscopic graspers, retractors, and forceps. Also called video thoracoscopic surgery, it can be selectively applied to various pulmonary, pleural, and pericardial lesions.


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