synthesis

synthesis, pl. syntheses (sin´the-sis, -sez)

1. A building up, putting together, composition. 2. In chemistry, the formation of compounds by the union of simpler compounds or elements. 3. Stage in the cell cycle in which DNA is synthesized as a preliminary to cell division. [G. fr. syn, together, + thesis, a placing, arranging]
s. of continuityhealing of the edges of a wound or fracture.
enzymatic s.s. by enzymes. See biosynthesis.
Kiliani-Fischer s.a synthetic procedure for the extension of the carbon atom chain of aldoses by treatment with cyanide; hydrolysis of the cyanohydrins followed by reduction of the lactone yields the homologous aldose; with this method, d-glucose and d-mannose can be synthesized from d-arabinose.
Merrifield s.the s. of peptides and proteins via an automated system on carrier polymers.
protein s.the process in which individual amino acids, whether of exogenous or endogenous origin, are connected to each other in peptide linkage in a specific order dictated by the sequence of nucleotides in DNA; this governing sequence is conveyed to the synthesizing apparatus in the ribosomes by mRNA, formed by base-pairing on the DNA template.

 

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