therapy (thar´a-pe)

1. The treatment of disease or disorder by various methods. See also therapeutics. 2. In psychiatry, and clinical psychology, a short term for psychotherapy. See also psychotherapy, psychiatry, psychology, psychoanalysis.therapeusis (2), therapia (1); [G. therapeia, medical treatment]
alkali t. See alkalitherapy.
analytic t. short term for psychoanalytic t.
anticoagulant t. the use of anticoagulant drugs to reduce or prevent intravascular or intracardiac clotting.
antisense t. use of antisense DNA for the inhibition of translation of a specific gene product for therapeutic purposes.
autoserum t. t. with serum obtained from the patient's own blood.
aversion t. a form of behavior t. that pairs an unpleasant stimulus with undesirable behavior(s) so that the patient learns to avoid the latter. See also aversive training.
behavior t. an offshoot of psychotherapy involving the use of procedures and techniques associated with research in the fields of conditioning and learning for the treatment of a variety of psychological conditions; distinguished from psychotherapy because specific symptoms (e.g., phobia, enuresis, high blood pressure) are selected as the target for change, planned interventions or remedial steps to extinguish or modify these symptoms are then employed, and the progress of changes is continuously and quantitatively monitored. See systematic desensitization.conditioning t;
client-centered t. a system of nondirective psychotherapy based on the assumption that the client (patient) both has the internal resources to improve and is in the best position to resolve his or her own personality dysfunction, provided that the therapist can establish a permissive, accepting, and genuine atmosphere in which the client feels free to discuss problems and to obtain insight into them in order to achieve self-actualization.
cognitive t. any of a variety of techniques in psychotherapy that utilizes guided self-discovery, imaging, self-instruction, symbolic modeling, and related forms of explicitly elicited cognitions as the principal mode of treatment.
collapse t. the surgical treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis whereby the diseased lung is placed, totally or partially, temporarily or permanently, in a nonfunctional respiratory state of retraction and immobilization. Now rarely performed except in drug resistant TB, such as with AIDS.
conditioning t. behavior t
conjoint t. a type of t. in which a therapist sees the two spouses, or parent and child, or other partners together in joint sessions.
convulsive t. electroshock t
cytoreductive t. t. with the intention of reducing the number of cells in a lesion, usually a malignancy.
depot t. injection of a drug together with a substance that slows the release and prolongs the action of the drug.
diathermic t. treatment of various lesions by diathermy.
electroconvulsive t. (ECT) electroshock t
electroshock t. (ECT) a form of treatment of mental disorders in which convulsions are produced by the passage of an electric current through the brain.convulsive t., electroconvulsive t;
electrotherapeutic sleep t. treatment by inducing sleep by means of nonconvulsive electric stimulation of the brain.
extended family t. a type of family t. that involves family members outside the nuclear family and who are closely associated with it and affect it.
family t. a type of group psychotherapy in which a family in conflict meets as a group with the therapist and explores its relationships and processes; focus is on the resolution of current interactions between members rather than on individual members.
fever t. See pyrotherapy.
foreign protein t. protein shock t
functional orthodontic t. functional jaw orthopedics
gene t. the process of inserting a gene into an organism to replace or repair gene function to treat a disease or genetic defect.Alterations of somatic or germ-line DNA to correct or prevent disease. Multiple animal experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of somatic gene therapy, in which functional DNA sequences are inserted into cells which lack or bear faulty versions of a particular gene. Vectors include modified viruses (e.g., adenovirus) and liposomes. In some cases, cells are removed from the body, treated with modified DNA, cultured, and returned to the body. The first human trial of somatic therapy took place in 1990, with melanoma patients. Germ-line therapy inserts specific genes directly into the DNA of sperm, eggs, or embryos, producing heritable alterations of the genome. Experimenters have inserted human DNA into germ cells of pigs, mice, and other laboratory animals, creating chimeras, but experiments with human germ cells are under federal ban.
geriatric t. gerontotherapy
gestalt t. a type of psychotherapy, used with individuals or groups, that emphasizes treatment of the person as a whole: the individual's biological component parts and their organic functioning, perceptual configuration, and interrelationships with the external world; it focuses on the sensory awareness of the person's immediate experiences rather than on past recollections or future expectations, employing role playing and other techniques to promote the patient's growth process and to develop the individual's full potential.
heterovaccine t. t. with a vaccine obtained from organisms not directly concerned with the disorder being treated.
hormone replacement t. in females, treatment with sex hormones for a number for reasons, including menopause, partial or full hysterectomy, or amenorrhea.In women, treatment with sex hormones is indicated for a number of reasons, including menopause, partial or full hysterectomy, or amenorrhea. After menopause, conjugated estrogens, estradiol, or estrone sulfate are given to reduce pain during intercourse, limit blood vessel effects, and prevent loss of bone mass. After radical hysterectomy, conjugated estrogens are given for similar reasons. After menopause or partial hysterectomy, progestin is administered at the same time to offset an increased risk of endometrial cancer. In some amenorrheas, estrogen is given to restore menses; if the therapy is unsuccessful, this may indicate the presence of pathology, for instance, pituitary tumor. Benefits for postmenopausal women include a lowered risk of heart attack (estrogen lowers LDL and raises HDL levels), and prevention of osteoporosis, since the rate of bone loss is directly linked to a drop in estrogen levels (see perimenopause). Medical opinion about the hazard posed by such therapy remains divided. Some studies have indicated increased incidence of breast cancer; however, a comprehensive 1992 review of the literature contradicted this finding.
hyperbaric oxygen t. treatment in which oxygen is provided in a sealed chamber at an ambient pressure greater than 1 atmosphere. See also hyperbaric oxygenation.
implosive t. a type of behavior t. using implosion.
individual t. dyadic psychotherapy
inhalation t. therapeutic use of gases or aerosols by inhalation.
insulin coma t. See insulin coma treatment.
interstitial t. radiation t. by means of radioactive seeds or needles implanted directly into the tissues to be irradiated.
intralesional t. t. by injection directly into a lesion, as in corticosteroid injections into skin lesions.
maintenance drug t. in chemotherapy, systematic dosage at a level that maintains protection against exacerbation.
marital t. marriage t
marriage t. a type of family t. that involves both husband and wife and focuses on the marital relationship as it affects the individual personalities, behaviors, and psychopathologies of the partners; the rationale for this method is the assumption that emotional or psychopathological processes within the family structure and in the social matrix of the marriage perpetuate individual pathological personality structures, which find expression in the disturbed marriage and are aggravated by the feedback between partners.marital t;
microwave t. microkymatotherapy
milieu t. psychiatric treatment employing manipulation of the social environment for the benefit of the patient; e.g., using the day-to-day experiences of patients living in a ward as the stimuli for discussion and therapeutic change.
myofunctional t. t. of malocclusion and other dental and speech disorders utilizing muscular exercises of the tongue and lips; most often intended to alter a tongue thrust swallowing pattern.
nonspecific t. the injection of a foreign protein, typhoid vaccine, etc., to induce fever in the treatment of certain diseases, especially those of a parasyphilitic nature.phlogotherapy;
occupational t. (OT) therapeutic use of self-care, work, and recreational activities to increase independent function, enhance development, and prevent disability; may include adaptation of tasks or environment to achieve maximum independence and optimum quality of life.
orthodontic t. See orthodontics.
orthomolecular t. treatment designed to remedy deficiencies in any of the normal chemical constituents of the body.
oxygen t. treatment in which an increased concentration of oxygen is made available for breathing, through a nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask.
parenteral t. t. introduced usually by a needle through some other route than the alimentary canal.
photoradiation t. photoradiation
physical t. (PT) 1. treatment of pain, disease, or injury by physical means;physiotherapy; 2. the health profession concerned with promotion of health, with prevention of physical disabilities, with evaluation and rehabilitation of persons disabled by pain, disease, or injury, and with treatment by physical therapeutic measures as opposed to medical, surgical, or radiologic measures.
plasma t. treatment with plasma.
play t. a type of t. used with children in which they can express or reveal their problems and fantasies by playing with dolls or other toys, drawing, etc.
proliferation t. rehabilitation of an incompetent structure (ligament or tendon) by the induced proliferation of new cells; accomplished by injecting an irritating substance into the loose ligament or tendon, the resulting scar formation and contracture serving to tighten up the ligament or tendon as scar tissue proliferates.
protein shock t. the injection of a foreign protein to induce fever as a means of treating certain diseases.foreign protein t;
psychedelic t. psychiatric t. utilizing psychedelic drugs.
psychoanalytic t. psychoanalysis (1)
pulse t. a short, intensive course of pharmacotherapy, usually given at intervals such as weekly or monthly; often used in chemotherapy of malignancy.
quadrangular t. marriage t. involving the husband and wife and their respective therapists.
radiation t. treatment with x-rays or radionuclides. See radiation oncology.
radium beam t. teleradium t
rational t. therapeutic procedures introduced by Albert Ellis and based on the premise that lack of information or illogical thought patterns are basic causes of a patient's difficulties; it is assumed that the patient can be assisted in overcoming his or her problems by a direct, prescriptive, advice-giving approach by the therapist.
reflex t. treatment of some morbid condition by exciting a reflex action, as in the household treatment of nosebleed by a piece of ice applied to the cervical spine.reflexotherapy;
replacement t. t. designed to compensate for a lack or deficiency arising from inadequate nutrition, from certain dysfunctions (e.g., glandular hyposecretion), or from losses (e.g., hemorrhage); replacement may be physiological or may entail administration of a substitute (e.g., a synthetic estrogen in place of estradiol).
root canal t. dental t. for damaged pulp by removal of the pulp and sterilization and filling of the root canal.
rotation t. teletherapy in which a desirable radiation dose distribution is achieved by rotating the patient or machine about an axis passing through the center of the tumor.
salvage t. salvage chemotherapy
sclerosing t. sclerotherapy
serum t. serotherapy
shock t. See shock treatment.
social t. a psychiatric rehabilitative t. to improve a patient's social functioning.
social network t. a type of t. involving the assembling of all persons emotionally or functionally important to the patient for the purpose of affecting behavioral change in the patient.
solar t. treatment of disease by exposure to sunlight.
specific t. t. aimed at the cause(s) of a disease process, as opposed to symptomatic therapy.
substitution t. replacement t., particularly when replacement is not physiological but entails administration of a substitute.
substitutive t. allopathy
teleradium t. therapeutic use of radium rays, the source of which is a quantity of radium at a distance from the patient.radium beam t;
thyroid t. the treatment of hypothyroidism.
total push t. the application of all available t.'s to the treatment of a psychiatric patient in a hospital setting.
ultrasonic t. t. for musculoskeletal disease using ultrasonic waves to produce heat.
viral t. the use of genetically altered virus particles for delivering genes to specific sites for the purpose of t.
x-ray t. radiation t. using x-rays; sometimes used ironically to refer to excessive use of diagnostic radiation.


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