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vaccine (vak´sen, vak-sen´)

Originally, the live v. (vaccinia, cowpox) virus inoculated in the skin as prophylaxis against smallpox and obtained from the skin of calves inoculated with seed virus. Usage has extended the meaning to include essentially any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis; e.g., preparations of killed microbes of virulent strains or living microbes of attenuated (variant or mutant) strains; or microbial, fungal, plant, protozoal, or metazoan derivatives or products. Method of administration varies according to the v., inoculation being the most common, but ingestion is preferred in some instances and nasal spray is used occasionally.vaccinum; [L. vaccinus, relating to a cow]
adjuvant v. a v. that contains an adjuvant; most often the antigen (immunogen) is included in a water-in-oil emulsion (Freund incomplete type adjuvant), or is adsorbed onto an inorganic gel (alum, aluminum hydroxide or phosphate).
aqueous v. a v. having a liquid vehicle (e.g., physiological salt solution) as distinguished from an emulsion.
attenuated v. (a-ten´u-at´id) live pathogens that have lost their virulence but are still capable of inducing a protective immune response to the virulent forms of the pathogen, e.g., Sabin polio v.
autogenous v. a v. made from a culture of the patient's own bacteria.
bacillus Calmette-Guérin v. BCG v
BCG v. a suspension of an attenuated strain (bacillus Calmette-Guérin) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bovine type, which is inoculated into the skin for tuberculosis prophylaxis.bacillus Calmette-Guérin v., Calmette-Guérin v., tuberculosis v;
brucella strain 19 v. a live bacterial v. prepared from an attenuated variant strain of Brucella abortus (strain 19); used for vaccinating cattle against brucellosis.
Calmette-Guérin v. BCG v
cholera v. an inactivated suspension of Inaba and Ogawa strains of Vibrio cholerae grown either on agar or in broth and preserved with phenol.
crystal violet v. See hog cholera v.'s.
diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis v. (DTP) a v. available in three forms: 1) diphtheria and tetanus toxoids plus pertussis v. (DTP); 2) tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, adult type (Td); and 3) tetanus toxoid (T); used for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
duck embryo origin v. (DEV) See rabies v.
Flury strain v. See rabies v., Flury strain egg-passage.
foot-and-mouth disease virus v.'s v.'s either of inactivated virus from infected cattle tongue epithelium or, more recently, of live virus attenuated by embryonated egg or mouse passage and propagated in tissue culture.
Haemophilus influenzae type B v. a conjugate of oligosaccharides of the capsular antigen of H. influen zae type B and diphtheria CRM protein.
Haffkine's v. 1. a killed culture of Vibrio cholerae in two strengths, a weaker one for the initial inoculation and a stronger one for the second inoculation 7 to 10 days after the first; 2. a killed plague bacillus (Yersinia pestis) v.
hepatitis B v. a formalin-inactivated v. prepared from the surface antigen (HBsAg) of the hepatitis B virus; the antigen can be obtained from the plasma of human carriers of the virus; purified HBsAg for immunization is also prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
heterogenous v. v. that is not autogenous, but is prepared from the same species of bacterium.
high-egg-passage v. , HEP v. See rabies v., Flury strain egg-passage.
hog cholera v.'s v.'s either of virus from blood of infected swine, inactivated with crystal violet, or live virus attenuated in rabbits or tissue culture and frequently used in conjunction with hog cholera virus antiserum.
human diploid cell v. (HDCV) an iodinated virus vaccine used for protection against rabies vaccine usually prepared in the human diploid cell WI-38.human diploid cell rabies v;
human diploid cell rabies v. (HDCV) human diploid cell v
inactivated poliovirus v. (IPV) See poliovirus v.'s (2);
influenza virus v.'s influenza virus grown in embryonated eggs and inactivated, usually by the addition of formalin; both whole virus and subunit preparations containing hemagglutinins and neuraminidase are used; because of the marked and progressive antigenic variation of the influenza viruses, the strains included are regularly changed following various outbreaks of influenza in order to include most recently isolated epidemic strains of both type A influenza and type B influenza.
live v. v. prepared from living, attenuated organisms.
live oral poliovirus v. See poliovirus v.'s (2);
low-egg-passage v. , LEP v. See rabies v., Flury strain egg-passage.
measles, mumps, and rubella v. (MMR) a combination of live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses in an aqueous suspension; used for immunization against the respective diseases.
measles virus v. v. containing live, attenuated strains of measles virus prepared in chick embryo cell culture. See measles, mumps, and rubella v.
multivalent v. polyvalent v
mumps virus v. v. containing live, attenuated mumps virus prepared in chick embryo cell cultures. See measles, mumps, and rubella v.
oil v. See adjuvant v.
oral poliovirus v. (OPV) See poliovirus v.'s (2);
Pasteur v. See rabies v.
pertussis v. See diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis v.
plague v. v. (licensed for use in the U.S.) prepared from cultures of Yersinia pestis, inactivated with formaldehyde, and preserved with 0.5% phenol; injections are made intramuscularly, and booster inoculations are recommended every 6 to 12 months while individuals remain in an area of risk; live, attenuated bacterial and chemical fraction v.'s are also available.
pneumococcal v. v. comprised of purified capsular polysaccharide antigen from 23 types of Streptococcus pneumoniae (representing those types responsible for most of the reported pneumococcal diseases in the U.S.).
poliomyelitis v.'s poliovirus v.'s
poliovirus v.'s 1. inactivated poliovirus v. (IPV), an aqueous suspension of inactivated strains of poliomyelitis virus (types 1, 2, and 3) used by injection; has largely been replaced by the oral v.; See Salk v. 2. oral poliovirus v. (OPV), an aqueous suspension of live, attenuated strains of poliomyelitis virus (types 1, 2, and 3) given orally for active immunization against poliomyelitis. See Sabin v.poliomyelitis v.'s;
polyvalent v. a v. prepared from cultures of two or more strains of the same species or microorganism.multivalent v;
rabies v. a v. introduced by Pasteur as a method of treatment for the bite of a rabid animal: daily (14 to 21) injections of virus that increased serially from noninfective to fully infective "fixed" virus were given to render the central nervous system refractory to infection by virulent virus; this v., with but slight modification (e.g., Semple v.), was used for many years but had the serious defect that the large quantity of heterologous nervous tissue inoculated along with the virus occasionally gave rise to an allergic (immunological) demyelinization. It was replaced, in the case of humans, by rabies v. of duck embryo origin (DEV), prepared from embryonated duck eggs infected with "fixed" virus and inactivated with beta-propiolactone. At the present time DEV has been replaced by human diploid cell v. (HDCV) which is gronw in WI-38 cells; it has a low incidence of adverse reactions and requires fewer injections.
rabies v., Flury strain egg-passage 1. high-egg-passage (HEP) v.: living Flury strain rabies virus at the 180th to 190th level egg passage (embryonate eggs), used for vaccination of cattle and cats; 2. low-egg-passage (LEP) v.: at the 40th to 50th passage level, containing 103 to 104 mouse LD50; nonpathogenic in dogs but retains some pathogenicity for cattle and cats.
rickettsia v., attenuated See typhus v.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever v. suspension of inactivated Rickettsia rickettsii prepared by growing the rickettsiae in the embryonate yolk sac of fowl eggs.
rubella virus v., live a live virus v. prepared from duck embryo or human diploid cell culture infected with rubella virus; administered as a single subcutaneous injection. See measles, mumps, and rubella v.
Sabin v. an orally administered v. containing live, attenuated strains of poliovirus. See poliovirus v.'s.
Salk v. the original poliovirus v., composed of virus propagated in monkey kidney tissue culture and inactivated. See poliovirus v.'s.
Semple v. a modification of the original (Pasteur) rabies v., formerly widely used in the U.S., prepared from rabbit nerve tissue, inactivated with phenol and administered in 14 to 21 daily injections; has variable potency and is associated with a high incidence of postvaccinal demyelination.
smallpox v. v. of live vaccinia virus suspensions prepared from cutaneous vaccinial lesions of calves (calf lymph) or chick embryo origin.
split-virus v. See subunit v.
staphylococcus v. a suspension of organisms from cultures of one or more strains of Staphylococcus; used for furunculosis, acne, and other suppurative conditions.
stock v. a v. made from a stock microbial strain, in contradistinction to an autogenous v.
subunit v. a v. which, through chemical extraction, is free of viral nucleic acid and contains only specific protein subunits of a given virus; such v.'s are relatively free of the adverse reactions (e.g., influenza virus) associated with v.'s containing the whole virion.
T.A.B. v. typhoid-paratyphoid A and B v
tetanus v. See diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis v.
tuberculosis v. BCG v
typhoid v. a suspension of Salmonella typhi inactivated either by heat or by chemical (acetone) with an added preservative; in the U.S., the combined typhoid and paratyphoid A and B v.'s have been largely replaced by the monovalent typhoid v. because of the lack of evidence of effectiveness of paratyphoid A and paratyphoid B ingredients.
typhoid-paratyphoid A and B v. a suspension of killed typhoid and paratyphoid A and B bacilli. See also typhoid v.T.A.B. v;
typhus v. a formaldehyde-inactivated suspension of Rickettsia prowazekii grown in embryonated eggs; effective against louse-borne (epidemic) typhus; primary immunization consists of two subcutaneous injections 4 or more weeks apart; booster doses are required every 6 to 12 months, as long as the possibility of exposure exists. A v. containing living rickettsiae of an attenuated strain of R. prowazekii has also been used.
whooping-cough v. See diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis v.
yellow fever v. a living, attenuated strain (17D) of yellow fever virus propagated in embryonated fowl eggs. 2. a suspension of dried mouse brain infected with French neurotropic (Dakar) strain of yellow fever virus, administered topically by the scratch method; not officially recommended in the United States because of meningoencephalitic reactions.


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