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blood group

blood (blud)

The "circulating tissue" of the body; the fluid and its suspended formed elements that are circulated through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins; b. is the means by which 1) oxygen and nutritive materials are transported to the tissues, and 2) carbon dioxide and various metabolic products are removed for excretion. The b. consists of a pale yellow or gray-yellow fluid, plasma, in which are suspended red b. cells (erythrocytes), white b. cells (leukocytes), and platelets. See also arterial b., venous b. [A.S. blod]
arterial b. b. that is oxygenated in the lungs, found in the left chambers of the heart and in the arteries, and relatively bright red.
cord b. b. present in the umbilical vessels at the time of delivery.
laky b. b. that is undergoing or has undergone laking. See lake (2), laky.
occult b. b. in the feces in amounts too small to be seen but detectable by chemical tests.
sludged b. b. in which the corpuscles, as a result of some general abnormal state, e.g., burns, traumatic shock, and similar stresses, become massed together in the capillaries, and thereby block the vessels or move slowly through them.
venous b. b. which has passed through the capillaries of various tissues, except the lungs, and is found in the veins, the right chambers of the heart, and the pulmonary arteries; it is usually dark red as a result of a lower content of oxygen.
whole b. b. drawn from a selected donor under rigid aseptic precautions; contains citrate ion or heparin as an anticoagulant; used as a b. replenisher.

blood group

A system of genetically determined antigens or agglutinogens located on the surface of the erythrocyte. Each b.g. is determined by closely linked loci. Because of the antigen differences existing between individuals, b.g.'s are significant in blood transfusions, maternal-fetal incompatibilities (erythroblastosis fetalis), tissue and organ transplantation, disputed paternity cases, and in genetic and anthropologic studies; certain b.g.'s have been supposed to be related to susceptibility or resistance to certain diseases. Often used as synonymous with blood type. See Blood Groups appendix for individual groups: ABO, Auberger, Diego, Duffy, I, Kell, Kidd, Lewis, Lutheran, MNSs, P, Rh, Sutter, Xg, and the low frequency and high frequency blood groups.
private b.g. a b.g. that is known to have occurred in only one family and is traceable to one single person.


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