bone (bon)

1. A hard connective tissue consisting of cells embedded in a matrix of mineralized ground substance and collagen fibers. The fibers are impregnated with a form of calcium phosphate similar to hydroxyapatite as well as with substantial quantities of carbonate, citrate sodium, and magnesium; by weight, b. is composed of 75% inorganic material and 25% organic material; a portion of osseous tissue of definite shape and size, forming a part of the animal skeleton; in man there are 200 distinct ossa in the skeleton, not including the ossicula auditus of the tympanic cavity or the ossa sesamoidea other than the two patellae. Bone consists of a dense outer layer of compact substance or cortical substance covered by the periosteum, and an inner loose, spongy substance; the central portion of a long bone is filled with marrow. 2. For definitions of bones as part of the animal skeleton, see os.For definitions of bones as part of the animal skelton, see Osos [NA]; [A.S. ban]
Albrecht's b. a small b. between the basioccipital and basisphenoid.
alveolar b. 1. alveolar process 2. in dentistry, the specialized bony structure which supports the teeth; it consists of the cortical b. that comprises the tooth socket into which the roots of the tooth fit, and is supported by the trabecular b.alveolar supporting b;
alveolar supporting b. alveolar b. (2)
ankle b. talus
basal b. the osseus tissue of the mandible and maxillae except the alveolar processes.
basilar b. the developmental basilar process of the occipital b. which unites with the condylar portions in about the fourth or fifth year, becoming the basilar part of the occipital bone.basioccipital b., os basilare;
basioccipital b. basilar b
basisphenoid b. in comparative anatomy, the b. in the floor of the braincase in the region of the pituitary. See body of sphenoid bone.
Bertin's b.'s sphenoidal conchae, under concha
blade b. scapula
breast b. sternum
Breschet's b.'s os suprasternale
brittle b.'s osteogenesis imperfecta
bundle b. immature b. containing thick bundles of collagen fibers arranged nearly parallel to one another with osteocytes in between; a similar type of b. is found in regions penetrated by fibers of Sharpey, as at ligament and tendon attachments.
calcaneal b. calcaneus (1)
calf b. fibula [O.N. kalfi, fibula]
cancellous b. substantia spongiosa
cannon b. the middle metacarpal (or metatarsal b.) in the horse.shank b. (1);
capitate b. capitate (1)
carpal b.'s eight bones arranged in two rows that articulate proximally with the radius and indirectly with the ulna, and distally with the five metacarpal bones; in domestic mammals, the bones of the proximal row are called radial, intermediate, ulnar, and accessory, while those of the distal row are termed first, second, third, and fourth carpal bones.carpus (2) [NA], ossa carpi [NA];
cartilage b. endochondral b
cavalry b. rider's b
central b. os centrale
central b. of ankle navicular b
cheek b. 1. zygomatic b 2. zygomatic arch
coccygeal b. coccyx
collar b. clavicle
compact b. the compact, noncancellous portion of bone that consists largely of concentric lamellar osteons and interstitial lamellae.substantia compacta [NA], compact substance, substantia compacta ossium;
convoluted b. See inferior nasal concha, middle nasal concha, superior nasal concha, supreme nasal concha.
cortical b. the superficial thin layer of compact bone.substantia corticalis [NA], cortical substance;
coxal b. hip b
cranial b.'s b.'s of skull
cubital b. triquetral b
cuboid b. the lateral bone of the distal row of the tarsus, articulating with the calcaneus, lateral cuneiform, navicular (occasionally), and fourth and fifth metatarsal bones.os cuboideum [NA];
cuneiform b. See triquetral b., intermediate cuneiform b., lateral cuneiform b., medial cuneiform b.
dermal b. a b. formed by ossification of the cutis.
b.'s of digits the phalanges and sesamoid bones of the fingers and toes.ossa digitorum [NA];
dorsal talonavicular b. an anomalous b. of the foot located near the head of the talus.Pirie's b;
ear b.'s auditory ossicles, under ossicle
elbow b. olecranon
endochondral b. a b. that develops in a cartilage environment after the latter is partially or entirely destroyed by calcification and subsequent resorption.cartilage b., replacement b;
epactal b.'s sutural b.'s
epihyal b. an ossified stylomastoid ligament.
epipteric b. a sutural b. occasionally present at the pterion or junction of the parietal, frontal, greater wing of the sphenoid, and squamous portion of the temporal b.'s.Flower's b;
episternal b. os suprasternale
ethmoid b. an irregularly shaped bone lying between the orbital plates of the frontal and anterior to the sphenoid bone; it consists of two lateral masses of thin plates enclosing air cells, attached above to a perforated horizontal lamina, the cribriform plate, from which descends a median vertical or perpendicular plate in the interval between the two lateral masses; the bone articulates with the sphenoid, frontal, maxillary, lacrimal, and palatine bones, the inferior nasal concha, and the vomer; it enters into the formation of the anterior cranial fossa, the orbits, and the nasal cavity.os ethmoidale [NA];
exercise b. rider's b
exoccipital b. (eks-ok-sip´i-tal) lateral part of occipital bone
facial b.'s the bones surrounding the mouth and nose and contributing to the orbits; they are the paired maxilla, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, palatine, inferior nasal concha; and the unpaired ethmoid, vomer, mandible, and hyoid.ossa faciei [NA], b.'s of visceral cranium;
first cuneiform b. medial cuneiform b
flank b. ilium
flat b. a type of bone characterized by its thin, flattened shape, such as the scapula or certain of the cranial bones.os planum [NA];
Flower's b. epipteric b
fourth turbinated b. supreme nasal concha
frontal b. the large single bone forming the forehead and the upper margin and roof of the orbit on either side; it articulates with the parietal, nasal, ethmoid, maxillary, and zygomatic bones, and with the lesser wings of the sphenoid.os frontale [NA], coronale (1);
Goethe's b. preinterparietal b
greater multangular b. trapezium
hamate b. the bone on the medial (ulnar) side of the distal row of the carpus; it articulates with the fourth and fifth metacarpal, triquetral, lunate, and capitate.os hamatum [NA], hamatum, hooked b., unciform b., unciforme, uncinatum;
heel b. calcaneus (1)
heterotopic b.'s b.'s that do not belong to the main skeleton but that regularly develop in certain organs, e.g., the heart, penis, clitoris, and snout of some animals.
highest turbinated b. supreme nasal concha
hip b. a large flat bone formed by the fusion of the ilium, ischium, and pubis (in the adult), constituting the lateral half of the pelvis; it articulates with its fellow anteriorly, with the sacrum posteriorly, and with the femur laterally.os coxae [NA], coxa (1), coxal b., innominate b., os innominatum;
hollow b. pneumatic b
hooked b. hamate b
hyoid b. 1. a U-shaped bone lying between the mandible and the larynx, suspended from the styloid processes by slender stylohyoid ligaments; 2. See hyoid apparatus.os hyoideum [NA], lingual b., tongue b;
iliac b. ilium
incarial bone51 incarial b. os interparietale
incisive b. os incisivum
b.'s of inferior limb b.'s of lower limb
inferior turbinated b. inferior nasal concha
innominate b. hip b
intermaxillary b. os incisivum
intermediate cuneiform b. a bone of the distal row of the tarsus; it articulates with the medial and lateral cuneiform, navicular, and second metatarsal bones.os cuneiforme intermedium [NA], mesocuneiform, middle cuneiform b., second cuneiform b., wedge b;
interparietal b. os interparietale
irregular b. one of a group of bones having peculiar or complex forms, e.g., vertebrae, many of the skull bones.os irregulare [NA];
ischial b. ischium
jaw b. mandible
jugal b. zygomatic b
Krause's b. small b. (secondary ossification center) in the triradiate cartilage between the ilium, the ischium, and the pubic b. in the growing acetabulum.
lacrimal b. an irregularly rectangular thin plate, forming part of the medial wall of the orbit behind the frontal process of the maxilla; it articulates with the inferior nasal concha, ethmoid, frontal, and maxillary bones.os lacrimale [NA], os unguis;
lamellar b. the normal type of adult mammalian b., whether cancellous or compact, composed of parallel lamellae in the former and concentric lamellae in the latter; lamellar organization reflects a repeating pattern of collagen fibroarchitecture.
lateral cuneiform b. a bone of the distal row of the tarsus; it articulates with the intermediate cuneiform, cuboid, navicular, and second, third, and fourth metatarsal bones.os cuneiforme laterale [NA], third cuneiform b., wedge b;
lenticular b. lenticular process of incus
lentiform b. pisiform b
lesser multangular b. trapezoid b
lingual b. hyoid b
long b. one of the elongated bones of the extremities, consisting of a tubular shaft (diaphysis) and two extremities (epiphyses) usually wider than the shaft; the shaft is composed of compact bone surrounding a central medullary cavity. Cf. short b. os longum [NA], pipe b;
b.'s of lower limb these include the inferior limb girdle (hip bone) and the skeleton of the free inferior limb (femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsus, metatarsus, and bones of the toes).ossa membri inferioris [NA], b.'s of inferior limb;
lunate b. one of the proximal row in the carpus between the scaphoid and triquetral; it articulates with the radius, scaphoid, triquetral, hamate, and capitate.os lunatum [NA], lunare, os intermedium;
malar b. zygomatic b
marble b.'s osteopetrosis
mastoid b. mastoid process
medial cuneiform b. the largest of the three cuneiform bones, the medial bone of the distal row of the tarsus, articulating with the intermediate cuneiform, navicular, and first and second metatarsal bones.os cuneiforme mediale [NA], first cuneiform b., wedge b;
medullary b. areas of b. formation present in the marrow spaces of the long b.'s of birds, which serve as a readily mobilized source of calcium for shell formation.
membrane b. a b. that develops embryologically within a membrane of vascularized primitive mesenchymal tissue without prior formation of cartilage.
mesethmoid b. in comparative anatomy, the b. present in some species as the most anterior b. of the floor of the braincase.
metacarpal b. one of the metacarpal bones, five long bones (numbered I to V, beginning with the bone on the radial or thumb side) forming the skeleton of the metacarpus or palm; they articulate with the bones of the distal row of the carpus and with the five proximal phalanges.os metacarpale [NA];
metatarsal b. one of the metatarsal bones; the five long bones numbered I to V beginning with the bone on the medial side forming the skeleton of the anterior portion of the foot, articulating posteriorly with the three cuneiform and the cuboid bones, anteriorly with the five proximal phalanges.os metatarsale [NA];
middle cuneiform b. intermediate cuneiform b
middle turbinated b. middle nasal concha
multangular b. See trapezium, trapezoid b.
nasal b. an elongated rectangular bone which, with its fellow, forms the bridge of the nose; it articulates with the frontal bone superiorly, the ethmoid and the frontal process of the maxilla posteriorly, and its fellow medially.os nasale [NA];
navicular b. a bone of the tarsus on the medial side of the foot articulating with the head of the talus, the three cuneiform bones, and occasionally the cuboid.os naviculare [NA], central b. of ankle, os centrale tarsi;
navicular b. of hand scaphoid b
nonlamellar b. woven b
occipital b. a bone at the lower and posterior part of the skull, consisting of three parts (basilar, condylar, and squamous), enclosing a large oval hole, the foramen magnum; it articulates with the parietal and temporal bones on either side, the sphenoid anteriorly, and the atlas below.os occipitale [NA];
orbicular b. lenticular process of incus
palatine b. an irregularly shaped bone posterior to the maxilla, which enters into the formation of the nasal cavity, the orbit, and the hard palate; it articulates with the maxilla, inferior nasal concha, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones, the vomer and its fellow of the opposite side.os palatinum [NA];
parietal b. a flat, curved bone of irregular quadrangular shape, at either side of the vault of the cranium; it articulates, with its fellow medially, with the frontal anteriorly, the occipital posteriorly, and the temporal and sphenoid inferiorly.os parietale [NA];
penis b. os penis
perichondral b. in the development of a long b. a collar or cuff of osseous tissue forms in the perichondrium of the cartilage model; the connective tissue membrane of this perichondral b. then becomes periosteum.periosteal b;
periosteal b. perichondral b
periotic b. petrous part of temporal bone
peroneal b. fibula
petrosal b. petrous part of temporal bone
petrous b. petrous part of internal carotid artery
ping-pong b. the thin shell of osseous tissue at the periphery of a giant cell tumor in a b.
pipe b. long b
Pirie's b. dorsal talonavicular b
pisiform b. a small bone resembling a pea in size and shape, in the proximal row of the carpus, lying on the anterior surface of the triquetral with which alone it articulates; it gives insertion to the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle.os pisiforme [NA], lentiform b;
pneumatic b. a bone that is hollow or contains many air cells, such as the mastoid process of the temporal bone.os pneumaticum [NA], hollow b;
postsphenoid b. the posterior portion of the body of the sphenoid b.
preinterparietal b. a large sutural b. occasionally found detached from the anterior portion of the os interparietale.Goethe's b;
premaxillary b. os incisivum
presphenoid b. in comparative anatomy, the b. in the floor of the braincase anterior to the basisphenoid b.
pubic b. mons pubis
pyramidal b. triquetral b
replacement b. endochondral b
reticulated b. woven b
rider's b. heterotopic bone ossification of the tendon of the adductor longus muscle from strain in horseback riding.cavalry b., exercise b;
Riolan's b.'s several small sutural b.'s sometimes present in the petro-occipital suture.
sacred b. sacrum [so called from belief in indestructibility of the bone as the basis for resurrection]
scaphoid b. the largest bone of the proximal row of the carpus on the lateral (radial) side, articulating with the radius, lunate, capitate, trapezium, and trapezoid.os scaphoideum [NA], navicular b. of hand, os naviculare manus;
scroll b.'s See inferior nasal concha, middle nasal concha, superior nasal concha, supreme nasal concha.
second cuneiform b. intermediate cuneiform b
semilunar b. obsolete term for lunate b.
septal b. interalveolar septum
sesamoid b. a bone formed in a tendon where it passes over a joint.os sesamoideum [NA];
shank b. 1. cannon b 2. tibia
shin b. tibia
short b. one whose dimensions are approximately equal; it consists of a layer of cortical substance enclosing spongy substance and narrow. Cf. long b. os breve [NA];
sieve b. cribriform plate of ethmoid bone
b.'s of skull the paired inferior nasal concha, lacrimal, maxilla, nasal, palatine, parietal, temporal, and zygomatic; and the unpaired ethmoid, frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and vomer.ossa cranii [NA], cranial b.'s;
sphenoid b. a bone of most irregular shape occupying the base of the skull; it is described as consisting of a central portion, or body, and six processes: two greater wings, two lesser wings and two pterygoid processes; it articulates with the occipital, frontal, ethmoid, and vomer, and with the paired temporal, parietal, zygomatic, palatine and sphenoidal concha bones.os sphenoidale [NA], sphenoid (2);
sphenoidal turbinated b.'s sphenoidal conchae, under concha
splint b. 1. the second or fourth, or internal or external small metacarpal b.'s in the horse; these are splinter-like in shape and lie on either side of the metacarpal or cannon b.; 2. fibula
spongy b. 1. substantia spongiosa 2. a turbinated bone.
stifle b. the patella of the stifle joint of a horse.
b.'s of superior limb b.'s of upper limb
superior turbinated b. superior nasal concha
suprainterparietal b. a sutural b. at the posterior portion of the sagittal suture.
suprasternal b. os suprasternale
supreme turbinated b. supreme nasal concha
sutural b.'s small irregular bones found along the sutures of the cranium, particularly related to the parietal bone.ossa suturarum [NA], Andernach's ossicles, epactal b.'s, epactal ossicles, wormian b.'s;
tail b. coccyx
tarsal b.'s the seven bones of the instep: talus, calcaneus, navicular, three cuneiform (wedge), and cuboid bones.ossa tarsi [NA];
temporal b. a large irregular bone situated in the base and side of the skull; it consists of three parts, squamous, tympanic and petrous, which are distinct at birth; the petrous part contains the vestibulocochlear organ; the bone articulates with the sphenoid, parietal, occipital, and zygomatic bones, and by a synovial joint with the mandible.os temporale [NA];
thigh b. femur
third cuneiform b. lateral cuneiform b
three-cornered b. triquetral b
tongue b. hyoid b
trabecular b. substantia spongiosa
trapezium b. trapezium
trapezoid b. a bone in the distal row of the carpus; it articulates with the second metacarpal, trapezium, capitate, and scaphoid.os trapezoideum [NA], lesser multangular b., os multangulum minus, trapezoid (3);
triangular b. os trigonum
triquetral b. a bone on the medial (ulnar) side of the proximal row of the carpus, articulating with the lunate, pisiform, and hamate.os triquetrum [NA], cubital b., os pyramidale, os triangulare (2), pyramidal b., pyramidale, three-cornered b., triquetrum;
turbinated b.'s See inferior nasal concha, middle nasal concha, superior nasal concha, supreme nasal concha.
tympanic b. tympanic ring
tympanohyal b. a small nodule of b. forming the base of the cartilaginous styloid process of the temporal b. at birth.
unciform b. hamate b
upper jaw b. maxilla
b.'s of upper limb these include the superior limb girdle (scapula and clavicle) and the skeleton of the free superior limb (humerus, radius, ulna, wrist bones, metacarpus, and bones of the fingers).ossa membri superioris [NA], b.'s of superior limb;
Vesalius' b. os vesalianum
b.'s of visceral cranium facial b.'s
wedge b. intermediate cuneiform b., lateral cuneiform b., medial cuneiform b
wormian b.'s sutural b.'s
woven b. bony tissue characteristic of the embryonal skeleton, in which the collagen fibers of the matrix are arranged irregularly in the form of interlacing networks.nonlamellar b., reticulated b;
yoke b. zygomatic b
zygomatic b. a quadrilateral bone which forms the prominence of the cheek; it articulates with the frontal, sphenoid, temporal, and maxillary bone.os zygomaticum [NA], cheek b. (1), jugal b., mala (2), malar b., os malare, yoke b., zygoma (1);


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