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canal (ka-nal´)

A duct or channel; a tubular structure. A canal or channel. See also canal, duct.canalis [NA]; [L. canalis]
abdominal c. inguinal c
accessory c. a channel leading from the root pulp laterally through the dentin to the periodontal tissue; may be found anywhere in the tooth root, but is more common in the apical third of the root.lateral c;
adductor c. the space in middle third of the thigh between the vastus medialis and adductor muscles, converted into a canal by the overlying sartorius muscle. It gives passage to the femoral vessels and saphenous nerve, ending at the adductor hiatus.canalis adductorius [NA] , Hunter's c., subsartorial c;
Alcock's c. pudendal c
alimentary c. digestive tract
alveolar c.'s canals in the body of the maxilla that transmit nerves and vessels from the alveolar foramina to the maxillary teeth.canales alveolares [NA] , alveolodental c.'s, dental c.'s;
alveolodental c.'s alveolar c.'s
anal c. the terminal portion of the alimentary canal; it extends from the pelvic diaphragm to the anal orifice.canalis analis [NA];
anterior condyloid c. of occipital bone hypoglossal c
anterior semicircular c.'s See bony semicircular c.'s.
archenteric c. invagination of the blastopore into the notochordal process to form a cavity. See neurenteric c.notochordal c;
Arnold's c. hiatus of canal of lesser petrosal nerve
arterial c. ductus arteriosus
atrioventricular c. the c. in the embryonic heart leading from the common sinuatrial chamber to the ventricle.
auditory c. external acoustic meatus
basipharyngeal c. vomerovaginal c
Bernard's c. accessory pancreatic duct
Bichat's c. cistern of great cerebral vein
birth c. cavity of the uterus and vagina through which the fetus passes.parturient c;
blastoporic c. obsolete term for primitive pit.
bony semicircular c.'s the three bony tubes in the labyrinth of the ear within which the membranous semicircular ducts are located; they lie in planes at right angles to each other and are known as anterior semicircular canal, posterior semicircular canal, and lateral semicircular canal.canales semicirculares ossei [NA];
Böttcher's c. utriculosaccular duct
Braune's c. the parturient c. formed by the uterine cavity, dilated cervix, vagina, and vulva.
Breschet's c.'s diploic c.'s
carotid c. a passage through the petrous part of the temporal bone from its inferior surface upward, medially, and forward to the apex where it opens into the foramen lacerum. It transmits the internal carotid artery and plexuses of veins and autonomic nerves.canalis caroticus [NA];
carpal c. 1. carpal tunnel 2. carpal groove
caudal c. the space occupied by the sacral extension of the epidural space.
central c. the ependyma-lined lumen (cavity) of the neural tube, the cerebral part of which remains patent to form the ventricles of the brain, while the spinal part in the adult often is reduced to a solid strand of modified ependyma.canalis centralis medullae spinalis [NA] , central c. of spinal cord, tubus medullaris; syringocele (1);
central c.'s of cochlea longitudinal c.'s of modiolus
central c. of spinal cord central c
central c. of the vitreous hyaloid c
cervical c. a fusiform canal extending from the isthmus of the uterus to the opening of the uterus into the vagina.canalis cervicis uteri [NA];
cervical axillary c. c. through which the subclavian vessels and brachial vessels reach the upper extremities (or extremity).
cervicoaxillary c. superior opening to the axilla, bounded by clavicle anteriorly, scapula posteriorly and first rib medically. Axillary vessels and brachial plexus are transmitted.
ciliary c.'s spaces of iridocorneal angle, under space
Civinini's c. anterior canaliculus of chorda tympani
Cloquet's c. hyaloid c
cochlear c. the winding tube of the bony labyrinth which makes two and a half turns about the modiolus of the cochlea; it is divided incompletely into two compartments by a winding shelf of bone, the bony spiral lamina.canalis spiralis cochleae [NA] , Rosenthal's c., spiral c. of cochlea;
condylar c. , condyloid c. the inconstant opening through the occipital bone posterior to the condyle on each side that transmits the occipital emissary vein.canalis condylaris [NA] , posterior condyloid foramen;
Corti's c. Corti's tunnel
Cotunnius' c. aqueduct of vestibule
craniopharyngeal c. pituitary diverticulum
deferent c. ductus deferens
dental c.'s alveolar c.'s
dentinal c.'s canaliculi dentales, under canaliculus
diploic c.'s channels in the diploë that accommodate the diploic veins.canales diploici [NA] , Breschet's c.'s;
Dorello's c. a bony c. sometimes found at the tip of the temporal bone enclosing the abducens nerve and inferior petrosal sinus as these two structures enter the cavernous sinus.
Dupuytren's c. diploic vein
endodermal c. primitive gut
facial c. the bony passage in the temporal bone through which the facial nerve passes; the facial c. commences at the internal auditory meatus with the horizontal part which passes at first anteriorly (medial crus of facial canal) then turns posteriorly at the geniculum of the facial c. to pass medial to the tympanic cavity (lateral crus of facial canal); finally, it turns downward (descending part of facial canal) to reach the stylomastoid foramen.canalis nervi facialis [NA] , aqueductus fallopii, fallopian aqueduct, fallopian c;
fallopian c. facial c
femoral c. the medial compartment of the femoral sheath.canalis femoralis [NA];
Ferrein's c. rivus lacrimalis
Fontana's c. sinus venosus sclerae
galactophorous c.'s lactiferous ducts, under duct
Gartner's c. longitudinal duct of epoöphoron
gastric c. furrow formed temporarily between longitudinal rugae of the gastric mucosa along the lesser curvature during swallowing; observed radiographically and endoscopically, it is formed because of the firm attachment of the gastric mucosa to the muscular layer, which is devoid of an oblique layer at this site; said to form a passageway favored by saliva and small quantities of masticated food and other fluids as they flow from cardia to gastroduodenal junction.canalis gastricus [NA] , canalis gastrici, magenstrasse;
greater palatine c. the c. formed between the maxilla and palatine bones; it transmits the descending palatine artery and the greater palatine nerve.canalis palatinus major [NA] , pterygopalatine c;
gubernacular c. a small c. located between the permanent tooth germ and the apex of the deciduous tooth, containing remnants of dental lamina and connective tissue.
c. of Guyon passageway through the transverse carpal ligament by which the ulnar nerve and artery enter the palm; it is closely related to the pisiform and the hook of the hamate.
gynecophoric c. a ventral groove running the length of male schistosome flukes, into which the threadlike female worm fits.
Hannover's c. the potential space between the ciliary zonule and the vitreous body.
haversian c.'s vascular c.'s that run longitudinally in the center of haversian systems of compact osseous tissue.Leeuwenhoek's c.'s;
Hensen's c. uniting duct
c. of Hering cholangiole
Hirschfeld's c.'s interdental c.'s
Holmgrén-Golgi c.'s Golgi apparatus
c. of Hovius an anastomotic circle between the anterior twigs of the venae vorticosae in the eyes of some animals, but not in normal human eyes.
Hoyer's c.'s Sucquet-Hoyer c.'s
Huguier's c. anterior canaliculus of chorda tympani
Hunter's c. adductor c
hyaloid c. a minute canal running through the vitreous from the discus nervi optici to the lens, containing in fetal life a prolongation of the central artery of the retina, the hyaloid artery. See vitreous, hyaloid artery.canalis hyaloideus [NA] , central c. of the vitreous, Cloquet's c., Stilling's c;
hypoglossal c. the canal through which the hypoglossal nerve emerges from the skull.canalis hypoglossalis [NA] , anterior condyloid c. of occipital bone, anterior condyloid foramen;
incisive c. , incisor c. one of several bony canals leading from the floor of the nasal cavity into the incisive fossa on the palatal surface of the maxilla; they convey the nasopalatine nerves and branches of the greater palatine arteries which anastomose with the septal branch of the sphenopalatine artery.canalis incisivus [NA];
inferior dental c. mandibular c
infraorbital c. a canal running beneath the orbital margin of the maxilla from the infraorbital groove, in the floor of the orbit, to the infraorbital foramen; it transmits the infraorbital artery and nerve.canalis infraorbitalis [NA];
inguinal c. the obliquely directed passage through the layers of the lower abdominal wall that transmits the spermatic cord in the male and the round ligament in the female.canalis inguinalis [NA] , abdominal c., Velpeau's c;
interdental c.'s c.'s that extend vertically through alveolar bone between roots of mandibular and maxillary incisor and maxillary bicuspid teeth.Hirschfeld's c.'s;
interfacial c.'s intercellular spaces occurring in relation to intercellular attachments by desmosomes in stratified squamous epithelium, generally resulting from shrinkage of an artifact of fixation.
Jacobson's c. tympanic canaliculus
Kürsteiner's c.'s , Küersteiner's c.'s a fetal complex of vesicular, canalicular, and glandlike structures derived from parathyroid, thymus, or thymic cord; they are rudimentary and functionless unless persistent postnatally, when they may occur as cystic structures in the vicinity of parathyroid III and thymus III. Kürsteiner described three types, type II c.'s being associated with thyroaplasia.
lateral c. accessory c
lateral semicircular c.'s See bony semicircular c.'s.
Laurer's c. a tube originating on the surface of the ootype of trematodes, directed dorsally to or near the surface; it may have originally served as a vagina or possibly as a reservoir of excess shell material.
Lauth's c. sinus venosus sclerae
Leeuwenhoek's c.'s haversian c.'s
c.'s for lesser palatine nerves c.'s located in the posterior part of the palatine bone.canales palatini minores [NA];
longitudinal c.'s of modiolus centrally placed channels that convey vessels and nerves to the apical turns of the cochlea.canales longitudinales modioli [NA] , central c.'s of cochlea;
Löwenberg's c. cochlear duct
mandibular c. the canal within the mandible that transmits the inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. Its posterior opening is the mandibular foramen.canalis mandibulae [NA] , inferior dental c;
marrow c. root c. of tooth
mental c. mental foramen
musculotubal c. a canal beginning at the anterior border of the petrous portion of the temporal bone near its junction with the squamous portion, and passing to the tympanic cavity; it is divided by the cochleariform process into two semicanals: one for the auditory (eustachian) tube, the other for the tensor tympani muscle.canalis musculotubarius [NA];
nasolacrimal c. the bony canal formed by the maxilla, lacrimal bone, and inferior concha that transmits the nasolacrimal duct from the orbit to the inferior meatus of the nose.canalis nasolacrimalis [NA];
neural c. the c. within the embryonic neural tube; the primordium of the central c.
neurenteric c. a transitory communication between the neural tube, notochordal canal, and gut endoderm in vertebrate embryos, including humans.
notochordal c. archenteric c
c. of Nuck See processus vaginalis of peritoneum.
nutrient c. a canal in the shaft of a long bone or in other locations in irregular bones through which the nutrient artery enters a bone.canalis nutricius [NA];
obturator c. the opening in the superior part of the obturator membrane through which the obturator nerve and vessels pass from the pelvic cavity into the thigh.canalis obturatorius [NA];
optic c. the short canal through the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone at the apex of the orbit that gives passage to the optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery.canalis opticus [NA] , foramen opticum, optic foramen;
palatovaginal c. pharyngeal c
parturient c. birth c
pelvic c. the passage from the superior to the inferior aperture of the pelvis.
pericardioperitoneal c. the portion of the embryonic celom that joins the pericardial cavity to the peritoneal cavity, developing into the pleural cavities.pleural c;
persistent atrioventricular c. a condition that is caused when the atrial and ventricular septa fail to meet, as in normal development, resulting in a low atrial and high ventricular septal defect or a common atrioventricular c.endocardial cushion defect;
Petit's c.'s zonular spaces, under space
pharyngeal c. on the undersurface of the vaginal process of the sphenoid bone, a furrow that is converted into a canal by the sphenoidal process of the palatine bone; it transmits the pharyngeal branch of the maxillary artery and the pharyngeal nerve from the pterygopalatine ganglion.canalis palatovaginalis [NA] , palatovaginal c;
pleural c. pericardioperitoneal c
pleuropericardial c.'s in the embryo, spaces or channels, one on each side, connecting the pericardial and pleural cavities.
pleuroperitoneal c. the communication between the embryonic pleural and peritoneal cavities.
portal c.'s connective tissue spaces in the substance of the liver that are occupied by preterminal ramifications of the bile ducts, portal vein, and hepatic artery, as well as nerves and lymphatics.
posterior semicircular c.'s See bony semicircular c.'s.
pterygoid c. an opening through the base of the medial pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone through which pass the artery, vein, and nerve of the pterygoid canal.canalis pterygoideus [NA] , vidian c;
pterygopalatine c. greater palatine c
pudendal c. the space within the obturator internis fascia lining the lateral wall of the ischiorectal fossa that transmits the pudendal vessels and nerves.canalis pudendalis [NA] , Alcock's c;
pulp c. root c. of tooth
pyloric c. the aboral segment (about 2 to 3 cm long) of the stomach; it succeeds the antrum and ends at the gastroduodenal junction.canalis pyloricus [NA];
Rivinus' c.'s See major sublingual duct, minor sublingual ducts, under duct.
root c. of tooth the chamber of the dental pulp lying within the root portion of a tooth.canalis radicis dentis [NA] , marrow c., pulp c;
Rosenthal's c. cochlear c
sacral c. the continuation of the vertebral canal in the sacrum.canalis sacralis [NA];
Santorini's c. accessory pancreatic duct
c.'s of Scarpa separate c.'s for the nasopalatine nerves and vessels. These c.'s normally fuse to form the incisive c.
Schlemm's c. sinus venosus sclerae
semicircular c.'s See bony semicircular c.'s.
small c. of chorda tympani posterior canaliculus of chorda tympani
Sondermann's c. a blind outpouching of Schlemm's c., extending toward, but not communicating with, the anterior chamber of the eye.
spinal c. vertebral c
spiral c. of cochlea cochlear c
spiral c. of modiolus the space in the modiolus in which the spiral ganglion of the cochlear nerve lies.canalis spiralis modioli [NA];
Stilling's c. hyaloid c
subsartorial c. adductor c
Sucquet-Hoyer c.'s arteriovenous anastomoses controlling blood flow in the glomus bodies in the digits.Hoyer's anastomoses, Hoyer's c.'s, Sucquet's anastomoses, Sucquet's c.'s, Sucquet-Hoyer anastomoses;
Sucquet's c.'s Sucquet-Hoyer c.'s
tarsal c. tarsal sinus
temporal c. a c. in the zygomatic bone transmitting the zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal nerves and vessels.
Theile's c. transverse pericardial sinus
tubotympanic c. See tubotympanic recess.
tympanic c. tympanic canaliculus
uniting c. uniting duct
urogenital c. urethra
uterovaginal c. a median tubular structure produced in the embryo from the fusion of the caudal parts of the paramesonephric ducts.
van Horne's c. thoracic duct
Velpeau's c. inguinal c
vertebral c. the canal that contains the spinal cord, spinal meninges, and related structures. It is formed by the vertebral foramina of successive vertebrae of the articulated vertebral column.canalis vertebralis [NA] , spinal c., tubus vertebralis;
vesicourethral c. the cranial portion of the primitive urogenital sinus from which develop the urinary bladder and part of the urethra.
vestibular c. scala vestibuli
vidian c. pterygoid c
Volkmann's c.'s vascular c.'s in compact bone that, unlike those of the haversian system, are not surrounded by concentric lamellae of bone; they run for the most part transversely, perforating the lamellae of the haversian system, and communicate with the c.'s of that system.
vomerine c. vomerovaginal c
vomerobasilar c. vomerorostral c
vomerorostral c. a small canal between the superior border of the vomer and the rostrum of the sphenoidal bone.canalis vomerorostralis [NA] , vomerobasilar c;
vomerovaginal c. an opening between the vaginal process of the sphenoid and the ala of the vomer on either side. It conveys a branch of the sphenopalatine artery.canalis vomerovaginalis [NA] , basipharyngeal c., vomerine c;
Walther's c.'s minor sublingual ducts, under duct
Wirsung's c. pancreatic duct


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