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cartilage (kar´ti-lij)

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and a ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of c.: hyaline c., elastic c., and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures such as the larynx, air passages, and ears; comprises most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone.For gross anatomical description, see cartilago and its subentriescartilago [NA] , chondrus (1) , gristle; [L. cartilago (cartilagin-), gristle]
accessory c. a sesamoid c.
accessory nasal c.'s variable small plates of cartilage located in the interval between the greater alar and lateral nasal cartilages.cartilagines nasales accessoriae [NA] , sesamoid c.'s of nose;
accessory quadrate c. lesser alar c.'s
c. of acoustic meatus the cartilage that forms the wall of the lateral part of the external acoustic meatus. It is incomplete above and is firmly attached to the margins of the bony part of the external meatus.cartilago meatus acustici [NA] , meatal c;
alisphenoid c. the c. in the embryo from which the greater wing of the sphenoid bone is developed.
annular c. cricoid c
arthrodial c. articular c
articular c. the cartilage covering the articular surfaces of the bones participating in a synovial joint.cartilago articularis [NA] , arthrodial c., diarthrodial c., investing c;
arytenoid c. one of a pair of small triangular pyramidal laryngeal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the cricoid cartilage. It gives attachment at its anteriorly-directed vocal process to the posterior part of the corresponding vocal ligament and to several muscles at its laterally-directed muscular process. The base of the cartilage is hyaline but the apex is elastic.cartilago arytenoidea [NA] , triquetrous c. (2);
c. of auditory tube cartilage of auditory tube or of pharyngotympanic tube; tubal cartilage; the trough-shaped cartilage that forms the medial wall, roof, and part of the lateral wall of the auditory tube.cartilago tubae auditivae [NA] , c. of pharyngotympanic tube, tubal c;
auricular c. the cartilage of the auricle.cartilago auriculae [NA] , c. of ear, conchal c;
basilar c. the c. filling the foramen lacerum.basilar fibrocartilage, fibrocartilago basalis;
branchial c.'s c.'s developing within the vertebrate or embryonic branchial arches; they form the cartilaginous viscerocranium.pharyngeal c.'s;
calcified c. c. in which calcium salts are deposited in the matrix; it occurs prior to replacement by osseous tissue and sometimes in aging c.
cellular c. an embryonic or immature stage of c. in which it consists chiefly of cells with very little matrix.parenchymatous c;
ciliary c. incorrect term sometimes applied to the inferior tarsus and superior tarsus. See tarsus (2).
circumferential c. 1. acetabular labrum 2. glenoid labrum
conchal c. auricular c
connecting c. the c. in a cartilaginous joint such as the symphysis pubis.interosseous c., uniting c;
corniculate c. a conical nodule of elastic cartilage surmounting the apex of each arytenoid cartilage.cartilago corniculata [NA] , corniculum laryngis, Santorini's c., supra-arytenoid c;
costal c. the cartilage forming the anterior continuation of a rib, providing the means by which it reaches and articulates with the sternum.cartilago costalis [NA] , costicartilage;
cricoid c. the lowermost of the laryngeal cartilages; it is shaped like a signet-ring, being expanded into a nearly quadrilateral plate (lamina) posteriorly; the anterior portion is called the arch (arcus).cartilago cricoidea [NA] , annular c;
cuneiform c. a small nonarticulating rod of elastic cartilage in the aryepiglottic fold anterolateral and somewhat superior to the corniculate cartilage.cartilago cuneiformis [NA] , Morgagni's c., Morgagni's tubercle, Wrisberg's c;
diarthrodial c. articular c
c. of ear auricular c
elastic c. a c. in which the cells are surrounded by a territorial capsular matrix outside of which is an interterritorial matrix containing elastic fiber networks in addition to the collagen fibers and ground substance.yellow c;
ensiform c. , ensisternum c. obsolete term for xiphoid process.
epiglottic c. a thin lamina of elastic cartilage forming the central portion of the epiglottis.cartilago epiglottica [NA];
epiphysial c. epiphysial plate
falciform c. medial meniscus
floating c. a loose piece of c. within a joint cavity, detached from the articular c. or from a meniscus.loose c;
greater alar c. one of a pair of cartilages that form the tip of the nose. It consists of a medial crus that extends into the nasal septum with its fellow of the opposite side, and a lateral crus that forms the anterior part of the wing of the nose.cartilago alaris major [NA];
Huschke's c.'s two horizontal cartilaginous rods at the edge of the cartilaginous septum of the nose.
hyaline c. c. having a frosted glass appearance, with interstitial substance containing fine type II collagen fibers obscured by the ground substance; in adult c., the cells are present in isogenous groups.
hypsiloid c. Y c
interosseous c. connecting c
intervertebral c. intervertebral disc
intra-articular c. 1. articular disc 2. articular meniscus
intrathyroid c. a narrow slip of c. sometimes found joining the laminae of the thyroid c. of the larynx in infancy.
investing c. articular c
Jacobson's c. cartilago vomeronasalis
c.'s of larynx See thyroid c., cricoid c., arytenoid c., cuneiform c., triticeal c., corniculate c., sesamoid c. of larynx, epiglottic c.cartilagines laryngis [NA];
lateral c. cartilaginous plates that extend above the hoof from the caudal angles of the distal phalanx of the horse; they are readily palpated under the skin of the sides of the hoof and assist in distributing the animal's weight during locomotion.
lateral c. of nose the cartilage located in the lateral wall of the nose above the alar cartilage.cartilago nasi lateralis [NA];
lesser alar c.'s the two to four cartilaginous plates of the wing of the nose posterior to the greater alar cartilage.cartilagines alares minores [NA] , accessory quadrate c;
loose c. floating c
Luschka's c. a small cartilaginous nodule sometimes found in the anterior portion of the vocal cord.
mandibular c. a c. bar in the mandibular arch that forms a temporary supporting structure in the embryonic mandible; the cartilagenous primordia of the malleus and incus develop from its proximal end, and it also gives rise to the sphenomandibular and anterior malleolar ligaments.Meckel's c;
meatal c. c. of acoustic meatus
Meckel's c. mandibular c
Meyer's c.'s the anterior sesamoid c.'s at the anterior attachments of the vocal ligaments.
Morgagni's c. cuneiform c
nasal septal c. a thin cartilaginous plate located between vomer, perpendicular plate of the ethmoid, and nasal bones, and completing the nasal septum anteriorly.cartilago septi nasi [NA] , c. of nasal septum, cartilaginous septum, pars cartilaginea septi nasi, quadrangular c., septal c;
c. of nasal septum nasal septal c
c.'s of nose See lateral c. of nose, greater alar c., nasal septal c., cartilago vomeronasalis, lesser alar c.'s, accessory nasal c.'s.cartilagines nasi [NA];
ossifying c. temporary c
parachordal c. c. primordia adjacent on either side to the cephalic portion of the notochord in young embryos; they represent an initial step in the formation of the chondrocranium.
paraseptal c. cartilago vomeronasalis
parenchymatous c. cellular c
periotic c. a cartilaginous mass on either side of the chondrocranium surrounding the developing auditory vesicle in the fetus; the otic capsule in its early cartilaginous stage.
permanent c. c. that is not replaced by bone.
pharyngeal c.'s branchial c.'s
c. of pharyngotympanic tube c. of auditory tube
precursory c. temporary c
primordial c. c. in an early stage in its development.
quadrangular c. nasal septal c
Reichert's c. a c. in the mesenchyme of the second branchial arch in the embryo, from which develop the stapes, the styloid processes, the stylohyoid ligaments, and the lesser cornua of the hyoid bone.
reticular c. , retiform c. rarely used terms for fibrocartilage.
Santorini's c. corniculate c
Seiler's c. a small rod of c. attached to the vocal process of the arytenoid c.
semilunar c. one of the articular menisci of the knee joint. See lateral meniscus, medial meniscus.
septal c. nasal septal c
sesamoid c. of larynx a small nodule of elastic cartilage sometimes present on the lateral border of the arytenoid cartilage.cartilago sesamoidea laryngis [NA];
sesamoid c.'s of nose accessory nasal c.'s
slipping rib c. subluxation of rib c., at the costo-chondral junction, causing pain and audible click.
sternal c. a costal c. of one of the true ribs.
supra-arytenoid c. corniculate c
tarsal c. incorrect term sometimes applied to the inferior tarsus and superior tarsus. See tarsus (2).
temporary c. a c. that is normally replaced by bone, to form a part of the skeleton.ossifying c., precursory c;
thyroid c. the largest of the cartilages of the larynx; it is formed of two approximately quadrilateral plates (laminae) joined anteriorly at an angle of from 90° to 120°, the prominence so formed constituting the laryngeal prominence (Adam's apple).cartilago thyroidea [NA];
tracheal c.'s the 16 to 20 incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage forming the skeleton of the trachea; the rings are deficient posteriorly for from one-fifth to one-third of their circumference.cartilagines tracheales [NA] , tracheal ring;
triangular c. articular disc of distal radioulnar joint
triquetrous c. 1. articular disc of distal radioulnar joint 2. arytenoid c
triticeal c. a rounded nodule of cartilage, the size of a grain of wheat, occasionally present in the posterior margin of the lateral thyrohyroid ligament.cartilago triticea [NA] , corpus triticeum, triticeum;
tubal c. c. of auditory tube
uniting c. connecting c
vomerine c. , vomeronasal c. cartilago vomeronasalis
Weitbrecht's c. articular disc of acromioclavicular joint
Wrisberg's c. cuneiform c
xiphoid c. xiphoid process
Y c. , Y-shaped c. the connecting c. for the ilium, ischium, and pubis; it extends through the acetabulum.hypsiloid c;
yellow c. elastic c


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