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1. The smallest unit of living structure capable of independent existence, composed of a membrane-enclosed mass of protoplasm and containing a nucleus or nucleoid. C.'s are highly variable and specialized in both structure and function, though all must at some stage replicate proteins and nucleic acids, utilize energy, and reproduce themselves. 2. A small closed or partly closed cavity; a compartment or hollow receptacle. 3. A container of glass, ceramic, or other solid material within which chemical reactions generating electricity take place. [L. cella, a storeroom, a chamber]
A c.'s alpha c.'s of pancreas or of anterior lobe of hypophysis.
absorption c. a small glass chamber with parallel sides, in which absorption spectra of solutions can be obtained.
absorptive c.'s of intestine c.'s on the surface of villi of the small intestine and the luminal surface of the large intestine that are characterized by having microvilli on their free surface.
acid c. parietal c
acidophil c. a c. whose cytoplasm or its granules stain with acid dyes.
acinar c. any secreting c. lining an acinus, especially applied to the c.'s of the pancreas that furnish pancreatic juice and enzymes to distinguish them from the c.'s of ducts and the islets of Langerhans.acinous c;
acinous c. acinar c
acoustic c. a hair c. of the organ of Corti.
adipose c. fat c
adventitial c. pericyte
air c.'s 1. pulmonary alveolus 2. air-containing spaces in the skull.
air c.'s of auditory tube tubal air c.'s
albuminous c. 1. serous c 2. zymogenic c
algoid c. a c. appearing like c.'s of algae, sometimes found in chronic diarrhea.
alpha c.'s of anterior lobe of hypophysis acidophil c.'s that constitute about 35% of the c.'s of the anterior lobe. There are two varieties: one that elaborates somatotropin, another that elaborates prolactin.
alpha c.'s of pancreas c.'s of the islets of Langerhans that secrete glucagon.
alveolar c. any of the c.'s lining the alveoli of the lung, including the squamous alveolar c.'s, the great alveolar c.'s, and the alveolar macrophages.pneumocyte;
amacrine c. a nerve c. with short branching dendrites but believed to lack an axon; Cajal described and named such cells in the retina.
ameboid c. a c. such as a leukocyte, having ameboid movements, with a power of locomotion.wandering c; migratory c;
amniogenic c.'s c.'s from which the amnion develops.
anabiotic c.'s c.'s that are capable of resuscitation after apparent death; the existence of anabiotic tumor c.'s is postulated to explain the recurrence of a cancer after a very long symptomless period following operation.
anaplastic c. 1. a c. that has reverted to an embryonal state; 2. an undifferentiated c., characteristic of malignant neoplasms.
angioblastic c.'s those c.'s in the early embryo from which primitive blood c.'s and endothelium develop.
Anitschkow c. cardiac histiocyte
anterior c.'s anterior ethmoidal air c.'s
anterior ethmoidal air c.'s the anterior group of air cells of the ethmoidal c.'s; each c. communicates with the middle meatus of the nasal cavity.sinus ethmoidales anteriores [NA] , anterior c.'s, anterior sinuses, cellulae anteriores;
anterior horn c. motor neuron
antigen-presenting c.'s (APC) c.'s that process protein antigens into peptides and present them on their surface in a form that can be recognized by lymphocytes. APCs include Langerhans c., dendritic c.'s, macrophages, B c.'s, and activated T c.'s.
antigen-responsive c. antigen-sensitive c
antigen-sensitive c. a small lymphocyte that, although not itself an immunologically activated c., responds to antigenic (immunogenic) stimulus by a process of division and differentiation that results in the production of immunologically activated cells.antigen-responsive c;
apolar c. a neuron without processes.
APUD c.'s See APUD.
argentaffin c.'s c.'s that contain granules which precipitate silver from an ammoniacal silver nitrate solution. See also enteroendocrine c.'s.
argyrophilic c.'s c.'s that bind silver salts but that precipitate silver only in the presence of a reducing agent. See also enteroendocrine c.'s.
Aschoff c. a large cell component of rheumatic nodules in the myocardium with a characteristic nucleus and relatively little cytoplasm.
Askanazy c. Hürthle c
astroglia c. astrocyte
auditory receptor c.'s columnar c.'s in the epithelium of the organ of Corti, having hairs (stereocilia) on their apical ends. See Corti's c.'s.
B c. 1. beta c. of pancreas or of anterior lobe of hypophysis; 2. B lymphocyte
balloon c. 1. an unusually large degenerated c. with pale-staining vacuolated or reticulated cytoplasm, as in viral hepatitis or in degenerated epidermal c.'s in herpes zoster; 2. a large form of nevus c. with abundant nonstaining cytoplasm, formed by vacular degeneration of melanosomes.
band c. any c. of the granulocytic (leukocytic) series that has a nucleus that could be described as a curved or coiled band, no matter how marked the indentation, if it does not completely segment the nucleus into lobes connected by a filament.band neutrophil, rod nuclear c., Schilling's band c., stab c., stab neutrophil, staff c;
basal c. a c. of the deepest layer of stratified epithelium.basilar c;
basaloid c. a c., usually of the epidermis, resembling a basal c.
basilar c. basal c
basket c. 1. a neuron enmeshing the cell body of another neuron with its terminal axon ramifications; 2. smudge c.'s 3. a myoepithelial c. with branching processes that occurs basal to the secretory c.'s of certain salivary gland and lacrimal gland alveoli.
basophil c. of anterior lobe of hypophysis beta c. of anterior lobe of hypophysis
beaker c. goblet c
Beale's c. a bipolar ganglion c. of the heart with one spiral and one straight prolongation.
Berger c.'s hilus c.'s
berry c. a crenated red blood c. with surface spicules.
beta c. of anterior lobe of hypophysis one of a population of functionally diverse c.'s that contain basophilic granules and secrete hormones such as ACTH, lipotropin, thyrotropin, and the gonadotropins.basophil c. of anterior lobe of hypophysis;
beta c. of pancreas the predominant c. of the islets of Langerhans that secretes insulin.
Betz c.'s large pyramidal c.'s in the motor area of the precentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex.Bevan-Lewis c.'s;
Bevan-Lewis c.'s Betz c.'s
bipolar c. a neuron having two processes, such as those of the retina or the spiral and vestibular ganglia of the eighth nerve.
Bizzozero's red c.'s nucleated red blood c.'s in human blood.
blast c. an immature precursor c.; e.g., erythroblast, lymphoblast, neuroblast. See also -blast.
blood c. one of the cells of the blood, a leukocyte or erythrocyte.blood corpuscle;
Boll's c.'s basal c.'s in the lacrimal gland.
bone c. osteocyte
border c.'s c.'s forming the inner boundary of the organ of Corti.
Böttcher's c.'s c.'s of the basilar membrane of the cochlea.
Bowenoid c.'s c.'s characteristic of Bowen's disease; scattered large, round intraepidermal keratinocytes with a hyperchromatic nucleus and pole cytoplasm.
bristle c. hair c. of the inner ear.
bronchic c.'s pulmonary alveolus
bronchiolar exocrine c. Clara c
brood c. mother c
burr c. a crenated red blood c.
C c. 1. a c. of the pancreatic islets of the guinea pig;gamma c. of pancreas; 2. parafollicular c.'s
Cajal's c. 1. horizontal c. of Cajal 2. astrocyte
caliciform c. goblet c
cameloid c. elliptocyte
capsule c. amphicyte
carrier c. phagocyte
cartilage c. chondrocyte
castration c.'s altered basophilic c.'s of the anterior lobe of the pituitary that develop following castration; the body of the c. is occupied by a large vacuole that displaces the nucleus to the periphery, giving the c. a resemblance to a signet ring.signet ring c.'s;
caterpillar c. cardiac histiocyte
centroacinar c. a c. of the pancreatic ductule that occupies the lumen of an acinus; it secretes bicarbonate and water, providing an alkaline pH necessary for enzyme activity in the intestine.
chalice c. goblet c
chief c. the predominant cell type of a gland.
chief c. of corpus pineale pinealocyte
chief c. of parathyroid gland a round clear c. with a centrally located nucleus; secretes parathyroid hormone.
chief c. of stomach zymogenic c
chromaffin c. a c. that stains with chromic salts, in adrenal medulla and paraganglia of the sympathetic nervous system.
chromophobe c.'s of anterior lobe of hypophysis c.'s of the adenohypophysis that are devoid of specific acidophilic or basophilic granules when stained with common differential stains.
Clara c. a rounded, club-shaped, nonciliated c. protruding between ciliated c.'s in bronchiolar epithelium; believed to be secretory in function.bronchiolar exocrine c;
Clarke c.'s large multipolar c.'s characteristic of the thoracic nucleus (Clarke's nucleus in lamina VII) of the spinal cord.
Claudius' c.'s columnar c.'s on the floor of the ductus cochlearis external to the organ of Corti.
clear c. 1. a c. in which the cytoplasm appears empty with the light microscope, as occurs in certain secretory c.'s of eccrine sweat glands and in the parathyroid glands when the glycogen is unstained; 2. any c., particularly a neoplastic one, containing abundant glycogen or other material that is not stained by hematoxylin or eosin, so that the c. cytoplasm is very pale in routinely stained sections.
cleavage c. blastomere
cleaved c. a c. with single or multiple clefts in the nuclear membrane.
clonogenic c. a c. that has the potential to proliferate and give rise to a colony of c.'s; some daughter c.'s from each generation retain this potential to proliferate.
cochlear hair c.'s sensory c.'s in the organ of Corti in synaptic contact with sensory as well as efferent fibers of the cochlear (auditory) nerve; from the apical end of each c. about 100 stereocilia extend from the surface and make contact with the tectorial membrane.Corti's c.'s;
column c.'s neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord whose axons are confined within the central nervous system.
commissural c. a neuron whose axon passes to the opposite side of the neuraxis.heteromeric c;
compound granule c. gitter cgitterzelle;
cone c. of retina cone (2)
connective tissue c. any of the c.'s of varied form occurring in connective tissue.
contrasuppressor c.'s (kon´tra-su-pres´or) a subpopulation of T c.'s, distinct from T helper c.'s, which inhibit T suppressor c. function.
Corti's c.'s cochlear hair c.'s
crescent c. sickle c
cytomegalic c.'s c.'s containing large intranuclear and intracytoplasmic cytomegalic inclusion bodies caused by cytomegalovirus; a member of the family Herpesviridae.
cytotoxic c. suppressor c.'s
cytotrophoblastic c.'s stem c.'s that fuse to form the overlying syncytiotrophoblast of placental villi.Langhans' c.'s (2);
D c. delta c. of pancreas
dark c.'s c.'s in eccrine sweat glands having many ribosomes and mucoid secretory granules.
daughter c. one of the two or more c.'s formed in the division of a parent c.
Davidoff's c.'s Paneth's granular c.'s
decidual c. an enlarged, ovoid connective tissue c. appearing in the endometrium of pregnancy.
decoy c.'s benign exfoliated epithelial c.'s with pyknotic nuclei seen in urinary infections; may be mistaken for malignant c.'s.
deep c. mesangial c
Deiters' c.'s 1. phalangeal c 2. astrocyte
delta c. of anterior lobe of hypophysis a variety of c. having basophilic granules.
delta c. of pancreas a c. of the islets having fine granules and containing somatostatin.D c;
dendritic c.'s in embryonic ectoderm, c.'s of neural crest origin with extensive processes; they develop melanin early.
Dogiel's c.'s the different cell types in cerebrospinal ganglia.
dome c. one of the rounded surface c.'s of the periderm layer of the fetal epidermis.
Downey c. the atypical lymphocyte of infectious mononucleosis.
dust c. alveolar macrophage
effector c. a terminally differentiated leukocyte that performs one or more specific functions. See also effector.
egg c. the unfertilized ovum.
embryonic c. blastomere
enamel c. ameloblast
end c. a fully differentiated c., the mature c. of a lineage.
endodermal c.'s embryonic c.'s forming the yolk sac and giving rise to the epithelium of the alimentary and respiratory tracts and to the parenchyma of associated glands.entodermal c.'s;
endothelial c. one of the squamous c.'s forming the lining of blood and lymph vessels and the inner layer of the endocardium.endotheliocyte;
enterochromaffin c.'s enteroendocrine c.'s
enteroendocrine c.'s c.'s with granules that may be either argentaffinic or argyrophilic; the c.'s, scattered throughout the digestive tract, are of several varieties and are believed to produce at least 20 different gastrointestinal hormones and neurotransmitters.enterochromaffin c.'s, Kulchitsky c.'s;
entodermal c.'s endodermal c.'s
ependymal c. a c. lining the central canal of the spinal cord (those of pyramidal shape) or one of the brain ventricles (those of cuboidal shape).
epidermic c. one of the c.'s of the epidermis.
epithelial c. one of the many varieties of c.'s that form epithelium.
epithelial reticular c. one of the many-branched epithelial c.'s that collectively form the supporting stroma for lymphocytes in the thymus; believed to produce thymosin and other factors that control thymic function.
epithelioid c. 1. a nonepithelial c. having certain characteristics of epithelium; 2. large mononuclear histiocytes having certain epithelial characteristics, particularly in tubercles where they are polygonal and have eosinophilic cytoplasm.
erythroid c. a c. of the erythrocytic series.
ethmoid air c.'s the numerous small air-filled cells of the ethmoidal labyrinth. See anterior ethmoidal air c.'s, middle ethmoidal air c.'s, posterior ethmoidal air c.'s.cellulae ethmoidales [NA] , sinus ethmoidales [NA] , ethmoidal c.'s;
ethmoidal c.'s ethmoid air c.'s
external pillar c.'s See pillar c.'s.
exudation c. exudation corpuscle
Fañanás c. a specialized astrocyte found in the cerebellar cortex.
fasciculata c. a c. of the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex that contains numerous lipid droplets due to the presence of corticosteroids.
fat c. a connective tissue c. distended with one or more fat globules, the cytoplasm usually being compressed into a thin envelope, with the nucleus at one point in the periphery.adipocyte, adipose c;
fat-storing c. a multilocular fat-filled c. present in the perisinusoidal space in the liver.lipocyte;
Ferrata's c. hemohistioblast
floor c. an obsolete term for the cell body of pillar c.'s in the floor of the arch of Corti.
foam c.'s c.'s with abundant, pale-staining, finely vacuolated cytoplasm, usually histiocytes that have ingested or accumulated material that dissolves during tissue preparation, especially lipids. See also lipophage.
follicular epithelial c. a c. lining a follicle such as that of the thyroid gland.
follicular ovarian c.'s c.'s of an ovarian follicle that surround the developing ovum; they form the stratum granulosum ovarii and cumulus oophorus.
foreign body giant c. a multinucleate "cell" or syncytium formed around particulate matter in chronic inflammatory reactions.
formative c.'s inner cell mass c.'s of the blastocyst; collectively, these c.'s give rise to the embryo.
foveolar c.'s of stomach theca c.'s of the foveolae of the stomach.
fuchsinophil c. a c. with a special affinity for fuchsin.
fusiform c.'s of cerebral cortex spindle-shaped c.'s in the sixth layer of the cerebral cortex.
G c.'s enteroendocrine c.'s that secrete gastrin, found primarily in the mucosa of the pyloric antrum of the stomach.
gamma c. of pancreas C c. (1)
ganglion c. originally, any nerve c. (neuron); in current usage, a neuron the c. body of which is located outside the limits of the brain and spinal cord, hence forming part of the peripheral nervous system; ganglion c.'s are either 1) the pseudounipolar c.'s of the sensory spinal and cranial nerves (sensory ganglia), or 2) the peripheral multipolar motor neurons innervating the viscera (visceral or autonomic ganglia).gangliocyte;
ganglion c.'s of dorsal spinal root pseudounipolar nerve c. bodies in the ganglia of the dorsal spinal nerve roots; the sensory spinal nerves are composed of the peripheral axon branches of these sensory ganglion c.'s, whereas the central axon branch of each such c. enters the spinal cord as a component of the dorsal root.
ganglion c.'s of retina the nerve c.'s of the retina whose central processes (fibers) form the optic nerve; their peripheral processes synapse with the bipolar c.'s and through them with the rod and cone c.'s; these c. bodies are round or flask-shaped and vary considerably in size.
Gaucher c.'s large, finely and uniformly vacuolated c.'s derived from the reticuloendothelial system, and found especially in the spleen, lymph nodes, liver, and bone marrow of patients with Gaucher's disease; Gaucher c.'s contain kerasin (a cerebroside), which accumulates as a result of a genetically determined absence of the enzyme glucosylceramidase.
gemistocytic c. gemistocytic astrocyte
germ c. sex c
germinal c. a c. from which other c.'s proliferate.
ghost c. 1. a dead c. in which the outline remains visible, but without other cytoplasmic structures or stainable nucleus; 2. an erythrocyte after loss of its hemoglobin.
giant c. a c. of large size, often with many nuclei.
Gierke c.'s small c.'s characteristic of the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.
gitter c. a lipid-laden microglial phagocyte commonly seen at the edge of healing brain infarcts, a result of cellular phagocytosis of lipid from necrotic or degenerating brain c.'s.compound granule c; [Ger. Gitterzelle, fr. Gitter, lattice, wire-net]
glia c.'s See neuroglia.
glitter c.'s polymorphonuclear leukocytes that stain pale blue with gentian violet and contain cytoplasmic granules that exhibit brownian movement; observed in urine sediment and characteristic of pyelonephritis.
globoid c. a large c. of mesodermal origin that is found clustered in the intracranial tissues in globoid cell leukodystrophy.
glomerulosa c. a c. of the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex that is the source of aldosterone; the c.'s are arranged in spherical or oval groups.
goblet c. an epithelial c. that becomes distended with a large accumulation of mucous secretory granules at its apical end, giving it the appearance of a goblet.beaker c., caliciform c., chalice c;
Golgi epithelial c. a glial cell found in the cerebellar cortex. See Bergmann's fibers, under fiber.
Golgi's c.'s See Golgi type I neuron, Golgi type II neuron.
Goormaghtigh's c.'s juxtaglomerular c.'s
granule c.'s 1. small nerve cell bodies in the external and internal granular layers of the cerebral cortex; 2. small nerve cell bodies in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex.
granule c. of connective tissue mast c
granulosa c. a c. of the membrana granulosa lining the vesicular ovarian follicle that becomes a luteal c. of the corpus luteum after ovulation.
granulosa lutein c.'s c.'s derived from the membrana granulosa of a mature ovarian follicle that secrete both estrogen and progesterone, and form the major component of the corpus luteum.
great alveolar c.'s cuboidal c.'s connected with the squamous pulmonary alveolar c.'s and having in their cytoplasm lamellated bodies (cytosomes) that represent the source of the surfactant that coats the alveoli.granular pneumonocytes, type II c.'s;
guanine c. a c. whose cytoplasm contains glistening crystals of guanine.
gustatory c.'s taste c.'s
gyrochrome c. See gyrochrome.
hair c.'s sensory epithelial c.'s present in the organ of Corti, in the maculae and cristae of the membranous labyrinth of the ear, and in taste buds; they are characterized by having long stereocilia or kinocilia (or both) which, with the light microscope, appear as fine hairs. See also vestibular hair c.'s, cochlear hair c.'s, taste c.'s.
hairy c.'s medium sized leukocytes that have features of reticuloendothelial c.'s and multiple cytoplasmic projections (hairs) on the c. surface, but which may be a variety of B lymphocyte; they are found in hairy cell leukemia.
Haller c. a variant of ethmoidal air cell developing into the floor of the orbit adjacent to the natural ostium of the maxillary sinus. A diseased Haller c. is capable of obstructing that ostium and producing a maxillary sinusitis.
heart failure c.'s macrophages in the lung during left heart failure that often carry large amounts of hemosiderin. See also siderophore.
HeLa c.'s the first continuously cultured human malignant c.'s, derived from a cervical carcinoma of a patient, Henrietta Lacks; used in the cultivation of viruses.
helmet c. a schistocyte shaped like a military helmet.
helper c. a subset of T lymphocytes that acts in cooperation with B lymphocytes to permit antibody formation.inducer c;
HEMPAS c.'s the abnormal erythrocytes of type II congenital dyserythropoietic anemia. See HEMPAS.
Hensen's c. one of the supporting c.'s in the organ of Corti, immediately to the outer side of the c.'s of Deiters.
heteromeric c. commissural c
hilus c.'s c.'s in the hilus of the ovary that produce androgens; they are thought to be the ovarian counterpart of the interstitial c.'s of the testis.Berger c.'s;
hobnail c.'s c.'s characteristic of a mesonephroma; a round expansion of clear cytoplasm projects into the lumen of neoplastic tubules, but the basal part of the c. containing the nucleus is narrow.
Hofbauer c. a large c. in the connective tissue of the chorionic villi; it appears to be a type of phagocyte.
horizontal c. of Cajal a small fusiform c. found in the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex with its long axis placed horizontally.Cajal's c. (1);
horizontal c.'s of retina c.'s in the outer part of the inner nuclear layer of the retina that lie with their axes more or less parallel with the surface. They are thought to connect the rods of one part of the retina with cones of another part.
horny c. 1. corneocyte
Hortega c.'s microglia
Hürthle c. a large, granular eosinophilic c. derived from thyroid follicular epithelium by accumulation of mitochondria, e.g., in Hashimoto's disease.Askanazy c;
I c. a cultured skin fibroblast containing membrane-bound inclusions; characteristic of mucolipidosis II. See also immunocyte.inclusion c;
immunologically activated c. an immunocyte that is in an elevated state of reactivity capable of carrying out an immune response, in contradistinction to an immunologically competent c.
immunologically competent c. a small lymphocyte capable of being immunologically activated by exposure to a substance that is antigenic (immunogenic) for the respective c.; activation involves either the capacity to produce antibody or the capacity to participate in cell-mediated immunity.
inclusion c. I c
indifferent c. an undifferentiated, nonspecialized c.
inducer c. helper c
innocent bystander c. the destruction of a c. by an immune process even though that c. was not directly targeted.
intercapillary c. mesangial c
internal pillar c.'s See pillar c.'s.
interstitial c.'s 1. c.'s between the seminiferous tubules of the testis that secrete testosterone;Leydig's c.'s; 2. c.'s derived from the theca interna of atretic follicles of the ovary; they resemble luteal c.'s and are an important source of estrogens; 3. pineal c.'s similar to glial c.'s with long processes.
irritation c. Türk c
islet c. one of the c.'s of the pancreatic islets.
Ito c.'s fat-containing c.'s lining hepatic sinusoids.
juvenile c. metamyelocyte
juxtaglomerular c.'s c.'s, located at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle that secrete renin and form a component of the juxtaglomerular complex; they are modified smooth muscle c.'s primarily of the afferent arteriole of the renal glomerulus.Goormaghtigh's c.'s;
K c.'s killer c.'s
karyochrome c. See karyochrome.
keratinized c. corneocyte
killer c.'s cytotoxic c.'s involved in antibody-dependent c.-mediated immune responses; they appear to be T lymphocytes of the suppressor subset with receptors for the Fc portion of IgG molecules, and lyse or damage IgG coated target c.'s without mediation of complement. See antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.K c.'s, null c.'s (1) , T cytotoxic c.'s;
Kulchitsky c.'s enteroendocrine c.'s
Kupffer c.'s phagocytic c.'s of the mononuclear phagocyte series found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids.stellate c.'s of liver;
lacis c. (lah-se´) one of the c.'s of the juxtaglomerular apparatus found at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle. [Fr. lacis, meshwork]
Langerhans' c.'s dendritic clear c.'s in the epidermis, containing distinctive granules that appear rod- or racket-shaped in section, but lacking tonofilaments, melanosomes, and desmosomes; they carry surface receptors for immunoglobulin (Fc) and complement (C3), and are believed to be antigen fixing and processing c.'s of monocytic origin; active participants in cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity.
Langhans' c.'s 1. multinucleated giant c.'s seen in tuberculosis and other granulomas; the nuclei are arranged in an arciform manner at the periphery of the c.'s;Langhans'-type giant c.'s; 2. cytotrophoblastic c.'s
Langhans'-type giant c.'s Langhans' c.'s (1)
LE c. a polymorphonuclear leukocyte containing an amorphous round body that is a phagocytosed nucleus from another cell plus serum antinuclear globulin (IgG) and complement; formed in vitro in the blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, or by the action of the patient's serum on normal leukocytes.lupus erythematosus c;
Leishman's chrome c.'s basophilic granular leukocytes (basophils) observed in the circulating blood of some persons with blackwater fever.
lepra c.'s distinctive, large, mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages) with a foamlike cytoplasm, and also poorly staining saclike structures resulting from degeneration of such c.'s, observed characteristically in leprous inflammatory reactions; indistinct staining results from numerous, fairly closely packed leprosy bacilli, which are acid-fast and resistant to staining by ordinary methods but may be vividly demonstrated by acid-fast staining procedures.
Leydig's c.'s interstitial c.'s (1)
light c.'s of thyroid parafollicular c.'s
lining c. littoral c
Lipschütz c. centrocyte (1)
littoral c. the c.'s lining the lymphatic sinuses of lymph nodes and the blood sinuses of bone marrow.lining c; [L. littoralis, the seashore]
Loevit's c. erythroblast
lupus erythematosus c. LE c
luteal c. , lutein c. a c. of the corpus luteum of the ovary that is derived from the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle; it secretes progesterone and estrogen.
lymph c. lymphocyte
lymphoid c. a parenchymal c. of lymphatic tissue.
macroglia c. astrocyte
malpighian c. a c. of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis.
Marchand's wandering c. a c. of the mononuclear phagocyte system.
marrow c. any c. of bone marrow, especially hemopoietic c.'s.
Martinotti's c. a small multipolar nerve c. with short branching dendrites scattered through various layers of the cerebral cortex; its axon ascends toward the surface of the cortex.
mast c. a connective tissue c. that contains coarse, basophilic, metachromatic granules; the c. is believed to contain heparin and histamine.granule c. of connective tissue, labrocyte, mastocyte, tissue basophil;
mastoid c.'s mastoid air c.'s
mastoid air c.'s numerous small intercommunicating cavities in the mastoid process of the temporal bone that empty into the mastoid or tympanic antrum.cellulae mastoideae [NA] , mastoid c.'s, mastoid sinuses;
Mauthner's c. a large neuron of the spinal cord with its c. body located in the metencephalon of fish and amphibia.
Merkel's tactile c. tactile meniscus
mesangial c. a phagocytic c. in the capillary tuft of the renal glomerulus, interposed between endothelial c.'s and the basement membrane in the central or stalk region of the tuft.deep c., intercapillary c;
mesenchymal c.'s fusiform or stellate c.'s found between the ectoderm and endoderm of young embryos; the shape of the c.'s in fixed material is indicative of the fact that in life they were moving from their place of origin to areas where they would become reaggregated and specialized; most mesenchymal c.'s are derived from established mesodermal layers, but in the cephalic region they also develop from neural crest or neural tube ectoderm; they are the most strikingly pluripotential c.'s in the embryonic body, developing at different locations into any of the types of connective or supporting tissues, to smooth muscle, to vascular endothelium, and to blood cells.
mesoglial c.'s mesoglia
mesothelial c. one of the flat c.'s of mesenchymal origin that form the superficial layer of the serosal membranes lining the body cavities of the abdomen and thorax.
Mexican hat c. target c. (1)
Meynert's c.'s solitary pyramidal c.'s found in the cortex in the region of the calcarine fissure.
microglia c.'s , microglial c.'s microglia
middle c.'s middle ethmoidal air c.'s
middle ethmoidal air c.'s the middle group of air cells of the ethmoidal c.'s; each c. communicates with the middle meatus of the nasal cavity.sinus ethmoidales mediae [NA] , cellulae mediae, middle c.'s, middle ethmoidal sinuses;
midget bipolar c.'s bipolar c.'s in the inner nuclear layer of the retina that synapse with individual cone c.'s in the outer plexiform layer; other larger bipolar c.'s in the inner nuclear layer synapse with both rod and cone c.'s; the axons of both types synapse in the inner plexiform layer with the dendrites of the ganglion c.'s.
migratory c. ameboid c
Mikulicz' c.'s foamy macrophages containing Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis; found in the mucosal nodules in rhinoscleroma.
mirror-image c. 1. a c. whose nuclei have identical features and are placed in the cytoplasm in similar fashion; 2. a binucleate form of Reed-Sternberg c. often found in Hodgkin's disease; the twin nuclei are disposed in relation to an imaginary plane between them like a single nucleus together with its image in a mirror.
mitral c.'s large nerve c.'s in the olfactory lobe of the brain whose dendrites synapse (in glomeruli) with axons of the olfactory receptor c.'s of the nasal mucous membrane, and whose axons pass centrally in the olfactory tract to the olfactory cortex.
monocytoid c. a c. having morphological characteristics of a monocyte but which is nonphagocytic.
mossy c. one of the two types of neuroglia c.'s, consisting of a rather large body with numerous short branching processes.
mother c. a c. which, by division, gives rise to two or more daughter c.'s.brood c., metrocyte, parent c;
motor c. a neuron whose axon innervates peripheral effector c.'s such as muscle fibers or gland c.'s.
mucoalbuminous c.'s mucoserous c.'s
mucoserous c.'s glandular c.'s intermediate in histologic characteristics between serous and mucous c.'s.mucoalbuminous c.'s, seromucous c.'s;
mucous c. a c. secreting mucus; e.g., a goblet c.
mucous neck c. one of the acidic mucin-secreting c.'s in the neck of a gastric gland.
Müller's radial c.'s Müller's fibers (2) , under fiber
multipolar c. a nerve c. with a number of dendrites arising from the c. body.
mural c. a nonendothelial c. enclosed within the basement membrane of retinal capillaries.
myeloid c. specifically, any young c. that develops into a mature granulocyte of blood, but frequently used as a synonym for marrow c.
myoepithelial c. a smooth muscle-like c. of ectodermal origin, found between the epithelium and basement membrane in a number of organs such as mammary, sweat, and lacrimal glands.
myoid c.'s flattened smooth muscle-like c.'s of mesodermal origin that lie just outside the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubule.peritubular contractile c.'s;
Nageotte c.'s c.'s found in the cerebrospinal fluid, one or two per cubic millimeter in health, but in greater numbers in various diseases.
natural killer c.'s large granular lymphocytes which do not express markers of either T or B c. lineage. These c.'s do possess Fc receptors for IgG and can kill target c.'s using antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. NK c.'s can also use perforin to kill c.'s in the absence of antibody. Killing may occur without previous sensitization.NK c.'s;
nerve c. neuron (1)
Neumann's c.'s nucleated c.'s in the bone marrow developing into red blood c.'s.
neurilemma c.'s Schwann c.'s
neuroendocrine c. 1. See neuroendocrine (2). 2. paraneurone
neuroendocrine transducer c. an endocrine c. that releases its hormonal product into the bloodstream only upon receipt of a nervous impulse.
neuroepithelial c.'s neuroepithelium
neuroglia c.'s See neuroglia.
neurolemma c.'s Schwann c.'s
neuromuscular c. a c. of a lower metazoan organism that is both sensitive and contractile.
neurosecretory c.'s nerve c.'s, such as those of the hypothalamus, that elaborate a chemical substance (such as a releasing factor, neuropeptide, or, more rarely, a true hormone) that influences the activity of another structure (e.g., anterior lobe of the hypophysis). See also neurosecretion.
nevus c. the c. of a pigmented cutaneous nevus that differs from a normal melanocyte in that it lacks dendrites.nevocyte;
nevus c., A-type melanocytes in the epidermis in pigmented nevi, resembling epithelial c.'s and frequently containing melanin.
nevus c., B-type small, usually non-pigmented melanocytes in the mid-dermis in pigmented nevi.
nevus c., C-type non-pigmented spindle-shaped melanocytes in the lower dermis in pigmented nevi.
Niemann-Pick c. Pick c
NK c.'s natural killer c.'s
nonclonogenic c. a c. that does not give rise to a colony of c.'s (large numbers of c.'s that are genetically identical); may undergo two or more c. divisions, but all daughter c.'s are destined to die or differentiate (losing all potential to divide).
null c.'s 1. killer c.'s 2. large granular lymphocytes that lack surface markers/membrane associated proteins of either B or T lymphocytes.
nurse c.'s Sertoli's c.'s
oat c. a short, bluntly spindle-shaped c. that contains a relatively large, hyperchromatic nucleus, frequently observed in some forms of undifferentiated bronchogenic carcinoma.
OKT c.'s c.'s recognized by monoclonal antibodies to T lymphocyte antigens: OKT-3 c.'s are T lymphocytes as a class, since all share a common leukocyte differentiation antigen; OKT-4 c.'s are helper c.'s; OKT-8 c.'s are suppressor c.'s. OKT-4/OKT-8 expresses the ratio of helper to suppressor c.'s, sometimes used as a measure of the functional status of the immune system and thus a basis for clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Current usage favors using CD designations. [Ortho-Kung T cell]
olfactory c.'s olfactory receptor c.'s
olfactory receptor c.'s very slender nerve c.'s, with large nuclei and surmounted by six to eight long, sensitive cilia in the olfactory epithelium at the roof of the nose; they are the receptors for smell.olfactory c.'s, Schultze's c.'s;
oligodendroglia c.'s See oligodendroglia.
Onodi c. a variant of a posterior ethmoidal air c. in intimate relationship with the optic nerve just distal to the optic chiasm.
Opalski c. a characteristically altered glial c. in the basal ganglia and thalamus in hepatocerebral degeneration and Wilson's disease.
osseous c. osteocyte
osteochondrogenic c. one of the undifferentiated c.'s in the inner layer of the periosteum of an endochondrally developing bone capable of developing into an osteoblast or a chondroblast.
osteogenic c. one of the c.'s in the inner layer of the periosteum that forms osseous tissue.
osteoprogenitor c. a mesenchymal c. that differentiates into an osteoblast.preosteoblast;
oxyntic c. parietal c
oxyphil c.'s c.'s of the parathyroid gland that increase in number with age; the cytoplasm contains numerous mitochondria and stains with eosin. Similar c.'s, and tumors composed of them, are found in salivary glands and the thyroid; in the latter, also called Hürthle c.'s.
P c. a characteristic specialized c., with probable pacemaker function, found in the S-A node and A-V junction.
packed human blood c.'s whole blood from which plasma has been removed; may be prepared any time during the dating period of the whole blood from which it is derived, but not later than six days after the blood has been drawn if separation of plasma and c.'s is achieved by centrifugation.
pagetoid c.'s atypical melanocytes resembling Paget's c.'s, found in some cutaneous melanomas of the superficial spreading type.
Paget's c.'s relatively large, neoplastic epithelial c.'s (carcinoma c.'s) with hyperchromatic nuclei and palely staining cytoplasm; in Paget's disease of the breast, such c.'s occur in neoplastic epithelium in the ducts and in the epidermis of the nipple, areola, and adjacent skin.
Paneth's granular c.'s c.'s, located at the base of intestinal glands of the small intestine, which contain large acidophilic refractile granules and may produce lysozyme.Davidoff's c.'s;
parafollicular c.'s c.'s present between follicles or interspersed among follicular c.'s; they are rich in mitochondria and are believed to be the source of thyrocalcitonin.C c. (2) , light c.'s of thyroid;
paraganglionic c.'s c.'s of the embryonic sympathetic nervous system that become chromaffin c.'s.
paraluteal c. theca lutein c
paralutein c. (par-a-lu´tin) theca lutein c
parenchymal c. See parenchyma.
parenchymatous c. of corpus pineale pinealocyte
parent c. mother c
parietal c. one of the c.'s of the gastric glands; it lies upon the basement membrane, covered by the chief c.'s, and secretes hydrochloric acid that reaches the lumen of the gland through fine intracellular and intercellular canals (canaliculi).acid c., oxyntic c;
peptic c. zymogenic c
pericapillary c. pericyte
peripolar c. a granular c. located where the parietal and visceral capsules of the renal corpuscle meet; part of the c. faces the filtration space of Bowman.
perithelial c. pericyte
peritubular contractile c.'s myoid c.'s
permissive c. a c. in which the late phase of viral infection follows the early phase and cell death is coupled with massive synthesis of virus; e.g., monkey c.'s are permissive for SV40.
pessary c. a red blood c. in which the hemoglobin has disappeared from the center, leaving only the periphery visible.
phalangeal c. the supporting c.'s of the organ of Corti, attached to the basement membrane and receiving the hair c.'s between their free extremities. See also phalanx (2).Deiters' c.'s (1);
pheochrome c. 1. former term for enteroendocrine c.; 2. pheochromocyte
photo c. a light-detecting electronic device; the device that measures x-ray transmission through a patient for automatic termination of the exposure.
photoreceptor c.'s rod and cone c.'s of the retina.
physaliphorous c. c.'s containing a bubbly or vacuolated cytoplasm, e.g., as characteristically seen in chordoma.
Pick c. a relatively large, rounded or polygonal, mononuclear c., with indistinctly or palely staining, foamlike cytoplasm that contains numerous droplets of a phosphatide, sphingomyelin; such c.'s are widely distributed in the spleen and other tissues, especially those rich in reticuloendothelial components, in patients with Niemann-Pick disease.Niemann-Pick c;
pigment c. a c. containing pigment granules.
pigment c.'s of iris c.'s of the stromal layer of the iris; in dark eyes (but not in blue) they contain granules of pigment.
pigment c.'s of retina c.'s in the outermost layer of the retina that contain pigment granules.
pigment c. of skin melanocyte
pillar c.'s c.'s forming the outer and inner walls of the tunnel in the organ of Corti.Corti's pillars, Corti's rods, pillar c.'s of Corti, tunnel c.'s;
pillar c.'s of Corti pillar c.'s
pineal c.'s c.'s of the corpus pineale or pinealocyte.
plasma c. an ovoid c. with an eccentric nucleus having chromatin arranged like a clock face or spokes of a wheel; the cytoplasm is strongly basophilic because of the abundant RNA in its endoplasmic reticulum; plasma c.'s are derived from B type lymphocytes and are active in the formation of antibodies.plasmacyte;
pluripotent c.'s primordial c.'s that may still differentiate into various specialized types of tissue elements; e.g., mesenchymal c.'s.
polar c. polar body
polychromatic c. a primitive erythrocyte in bone marrow, with basophilic material as well as hemoglobin (acidophilic) in the cytoplasm.polychromatophil c;
polychromatophil c. polychromatic c
posterior c.'s posterior ethmoidal air c.'s
posterior ethmoidal air c.'s the posterior group of air cells of the ethmoidal c.'s; each c. communicates with the superior meatus of the nasal cavity.sinus ethmoidales posteriores [NA] , cellulae posteriores, posterior c.'s;
pregnancy c.'s hypophysial chromophobe c.'s that increase in number and accumulate eosinophil granules during pregnancy.
pregranulosa c.'s capsular c.'s surrounding the primordial ova in the embryonic ovary; they are derived from celomic epithelium.
prickle c. one of the c.'s of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis; so called because of typical shrinkage artifacts that occur in histological preparations, resulting in intercellular bridges at points of desmosomal adhesion.spine c;
primary embryonic c. in a very young embryo, a c. still capable of differentiation.
primitive reticular c. a c. with processes making contact with those of other similar c.'s to form a cellular network; along with the network of reticular fibers, the reticular c.'s form the stroma of bone marrow and lymphatic tissues.
primordial c. a c. from a group that constitutes the primordium of an organ or part of the embryo.
primordial germ c. the most primitive undifferentiated sex cell, found initially outside the gonad.gonocyte;
prolactin c. mammotroph
pseudo-Gaucher c. a plasma c., microscopically resembling a Gaucher c., found in the bone marrow in some cases of multiple myeloma.
pseudounipolar c. unipolar neuron
pseudoxanthoma c. relatively large phagocytic c.'s (macrophages) that contain numerous small lipid vacuoles or hemosiderin (or both), in organizing hemorrhagic or inflammatory lesions.
pulpar c. the specific macrophagic c. of the spleen substance.
Purkinje's c.'s large nerve c.'s of the cerebellar cortex with a piriform cell body and dendrites arranged in a plane transverse to the folium.Purkinje's corpuscles;
pus c. pus corpuscle
pyramidal c.'s neurons of the cerebral cortex which, in sections perpendicular to the cortical surface, exhibit a triangular shape with a long apical dendrite directed toward the surface of the cortex; there are also lateral dendrites, and a basal axon that descends to deeper layers.
pyrrol c. , pyrrhol c. a c. of the mononuclear macrophage system that has a special affinity for pyrrol blue, taking up the dye by a process of pinocytosis.
Raji c. a c. of a cultured line of lymphoblastoid c.'s derived from a Burkitt's lymphoma; it possesses numerous receptors for certain complement components and is thus suitable for use in detection of immune complexes. It expresses certain complement receptors as well as Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G.
reactive c. gemistocytic astrocyte
red blood c. (rbc, RBC) erythrocyte
Reed c.'s Reed-Sternberg c.'s
Reed-Sternberg c.'s large transformed lymphocytes generally regarded as pathognomonic of Hodgkin's disease; a typical c. has a pale-staining acidophilic cytoplasm and one or two large nuclei showing marginal clumping of chromatin and unusually conspicuous deeply acidophilic nucleoli; binucleate Reed-Sternberg c.'s frequently show a mirror-image form (mirror-image c.).Reed c.'s, Sternberg c.'s, Sternberg-Reed c.'s;
Renshaw c.'s inhibitory interneurons that are innervated by collaterals from motoneurons and in turn form synapses with the same and adjacent motoneurons to exert inhibition; identified physiologically and by intracellular injection technic.
resting c. a quiescent c.; one not undergoing mitosis.
resting wandering c. fixed macrophage
restructured c. the viable c. produced by fusion of a karyoplast with a cytoplast.
reticular c. See primitive reticular c.
reticularis c. a c. of the zona reticularis of the innermost part of the adrenal cortex.
reticuloendothelial c. a c. of the reticuloendothelial system.
rhagiocrine c. macrophage
Rieder c.'s abnormal myeloblasts (12 to 20 mum in diameter) in which the nucleus may be widely and deeply indented (i.e., suggestive of lobulation), or may actually be a bi- or multi-lobate structure; such c.'s are frequently observed in acute leukemia, and probably represent a more rapid maturation of the nucleus than that of the cytoplasm.
Rindfleisch's c.'s obsolete eponym for eosinophilic leukocyte.
rod nuclear c. band c
rod c. of retina rod (2)
Rolando's c.'s the nerve c.'s in Rolando's gelatinous substance of the spinal cord.
rosette-forming c.'s T lymphocytes with an affinity for sheep erythrocytes and which, when suspended in serum, bind the uncoated, nonsensitized erythrocytes in a rosette formation.
Rouget c. a c. with several slender processes that embraces the capillary wall in amphibia.capillary pericyte;
sarcogenic c. myoblast
satellite c.'s neuroglial c.'s surrounding the c. body of a ganglion c. in the spinal, cranial, and autonomic ganglia.
satellite c. of skeletal muscle an elongated spindle-shaped c. occupying depressions in the sarcolemma and between it and the basal lamina; believed to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration by fusing with adjacent myofiber.sarcoplast;
scavenger c. phagocyte
Schilling's band c. band c
Schultze's c.'s olfactory receptor c.'s
Schwann c.'s c.'s of ectodermal (neural crest) origin that compose a continuous envelope around each nerve fiber of peripheral nerves; such c.'s are comparable to the oligodendroglia c.'s of brain and spinal cord; like the latter, they may form membranous expansions that wind around axons and thus form the axon's myelin sheath.neurilemma c.'s, neurolemma c.'s;
segmented c. a polymorphonuclear leukocyte matured beyond the band c. so that two or more lobes of the nucleus occur.
sensitized c. 1. a c., including a bacterial c., that has combined with specific antibody to form a complex capable of reacting with complement components; 2. a small, "committed," c. derived, by division and differentiation, from a transformed lymphocyte; 3. a c. that has been either exposed to antigen or opsonized with antibodies and/or complement.
sensory c. a c. in the peripheral nervous system that receives afferent (sensory) input; sensory receptor c.'s.
septal c. a round pale c. of the lungs in the septa between the pulmonary alveoli.
seromucous c.'s mucoserous c.'s
serous c. a c., especially of the salivary gland, that secretes a watery or thin albuminous fluid, as opposed to a mucous c.albuminous c. (1);
Sertoli's c.'s elongated c.'s in the seminiferous tubules to which spermatids are attached during spermiogenesis; they secrete androgen-binding protein and establish the blood-testis barrier by forming tight junctions with adjacent Sertoli's c.'s.nurse c.'s;
sex c. a spermatozoon or an ovum.germ c;
Sézary c. an atypical T lymphocyte seen in the peripheral blood in the Sézary syndrome; it has a large convoluted nucleus and scanty cytoplasm containing PAS-positive vacuoles.
shadow c.'s smudge c.'s
sickle c. an abnormal, crescentic erythrocyte that is characteristic of sickle c. anemia, resulting from an inherited abnormality of hemoglobin (hemoglobin S) causing decreased solubility at low oxygen tension.crescent c., drepanocyte, meniscocyte;
signet ring c.'s castration c.'s
silver c. one of a number of c.'s seen in plaques of multiple sclerosis, having round or oval nuclei, the body of the c. containing many yellow or light brown particles; the c.'s are characteristic of multiple sclerosis, but are found in other conditions, including syphilis.
skein c. reticulocyte
small cleaved c. a lymphoid c. of follicular center c. origin that has an irregularly shaped nucleus with clumped chromatin, absent nucleoli, and one or more clefts in the nuclear membrane.
smudge c.'s immature leukocytes of any type that have undergone partial breakdown during preparation of a stained smear or tissue section, because of their greater fragility; smudge c.'s are seen in largest numbers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.basket c. (2) , Gumprecht's shadows, shadow c.'s;
somatic c.'s the c.'s of an organism, other than the germ c.'s.
sperm c. spermatozoon
spider c. 1. astrocyte 2. a c. in a rhabdomyoma of the heart, with central nucleus and cytoplasmic mass connected to the cell wall by strands of cytoplasm separated by clear glycogen-filled areas.
spindle c. a fusiform c., such as those in the deeper layers of the cerebral cortex.
spine c. prickle c
splenic c.'s large round ameboid c.'s (macrophages) in the splenic pulp.
squamous c. a flat scale-like epithelial c.
squamous alveolar c.'s highly attentuated squamous c.'s that form the gas-permeable epithelium lining the alveoli of the lungs.type I c.'s;
stab c. band c
staff c. band c
standard c. an electrical c. having a definite known voltage; used to calibrate other electric c.'s.
stellate c.'s of cerebral cortex small star-shaped c.'s in the second and fourth layers of the cortex, and large stellate c.'s in the deeper part of the third layer in the visual cortex.
stellate c.'s of liver Kupffer c.'s
stem c. 1. any precursor cell; 2. a c. whose daughter c.'s may differentiate into other c. types.
Sternberg c.'s Reed-Sternberg c.'s
Sternberg-Reed c.'s Reed-Sternberg c.'s
stichochrome c. See stichochrome.
strap c. an elongated tumor c. of uniform width that may show cross-striations; found in rhabdomyosarcoma.
supporting c. sustentacular c
suppressor c.'s cells of the immune system that inhibit or help to terminate an immune response, e.g., suppressor macrophages and suppressor T cells.cytotoxic c;
surface mucous c.'s of stomach c.'s lining the gastric surface and foveolae; a glycoprotein product at the apical end of each c. is secreted and forms a mucous protective film.theca c.'s of stomach;
sustentacular c. one of the ordinary elongated c.'s resting on the basement membrane that surround and serve as a support to the shorter specialized c.'s in certain organs, such as the labyrinth of the inner ear or olfactory epithelium.supporting c;
sympathetic formative c. a neuroblast of the embryonic autonomic nervous system.
sympathicotropic c.'s large epithelioid c.'s in the hilum of the ovary associated with unmyelinated nerve fibers.
sympathochromaffin c. the c. type in the embryonic suprarenal gland from which both sympathetic ganglion c.'s and chromaffin c.'s are developed.
synovial c. fibrotoplast-like c.'s that form 1-6 epithelioid layers in the synovial membrane of joints; believed to contribute proteoglycans and hyaluronate to the synovial fluid.
T c. T lymphocyte
tactile c. one of the epithelioid c.'s of a corpusculum tactus.touch c;
tanned red c.'s erythrocytes subjected to mild treatment with chemicals such as tannic acid so that they adsorb onto their surface soluble antigens; used in hemagglutination tests.
target c. 1. an erythrocyte in target c. anemia, with a dark center surrounded by a light band that again is encircled by a darker ring; it thus resembles a shooting target; such c.'s also appear after splenectomy;Mexican hat c; 2. a c. lysed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, as in graft rejection.
tart c. a monocyte with an engulfed nucleus in which the structure is still well preserved.
taste c.'s darkly staining c.'s in a taste bud that appear to have extending into the gustatory pore long hair-like microvilli containing a number of closely packed microtubules; the taste c.'s stand in synaptic contact with sensory nerve fibers of the facial, glossopharyngeal, or vagus nerves.gustatory c.'s;
T cytotoxic c.'s (Tc) killer c.'s
TDTH c.'s a functional subset of T helper c.'s that are involved in delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
tendon c.'s elongated fibroblastic c.'s arranged in rows between the collagenous tendon fibers.
Tg c.'s a subset of T c.'s that have an Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G molecules.
theca lutein c. a steroid secretory c. of the corpus luteum that comes from the theca interna of the ovarian follicle at the time of ovulation.paraluteal c., paralutein c;
theca c.'s of stomach surface mucous c.'s of stomach
T helper c.'s (Th) a subset of lymphocytes that secrete various cytokines that regulate the immune response.
Tiselius electrophoresis c. the special container in a Tiselius apparatus containing the solution to be analyzed electrophoretically.
Tm c.'s T helper c.'s that have an Fc receptor for immunoglobulin M molecules.
totipotent c. an undifferentiated c. capable of developing into any type of body c.
touch c. tactile c
Touton giant c. a xanthoma c. in which the multiple nuclei are grouped around a small island of nonfoamy cytoplasm.
transducer c. any c. responding to a mechanical, thermal, photic, or chemical stimulus by generating an electrical impulse synaptically transmitted to a sensory neuron in contact with the c.
transitional c. any c. thought to represent a phase of development from one form to another.
tubal air c.'s occasional small air cells in the inferior wall of the auditory tube, near the tympanic orifice, communicating with the tympanic cavity.cellulae pneumaticae tubae auditivae [NA] , air c.'s of auditory tube;
tufted c. a particular type of c. in the olfactory bulb comparable to the bulb's mitral c. with respect to afferent and efferent relationships, but smaller and more superficially located.
tunnel c.'s pillar c.'s
Türk c. a relatively large, immature c. with certain morphologic features resembling those of a plasma c., although the nuclear pattern is similar to that of a myeloblast; found in circulating blood only in pathologic conditions.irritation c., Türk's leukocyte;
tympanic c.'s tympanic air c.'s
tympanic air c.'s numerous groovelike depressions in the walls of the tympanic cavity, communicating with the tubal air cells.cellulae tympanicae [NA] , tympanic c.'s;
type I c.'s squamous alveolar c.'s
type II c.'s great alveolar c.'s
Tzanck c.'s acantholytic epithelial c.'s seen in the Tzanck test.
undifferentiated c. a primitive c. that has not assumed the morphologic and functional characteristics it will later acquire.
unipolar c. unipolar neuron
vasoformative c. angioblast (1)
veil c. an antigen-presenting c. that has veil-like cytoplasmic processes and circulates in the blood and lymph.veiled c.'s (1);
veiled c.'s 1. veil c 2. See Langerhans' c.'s.
vestibular hair c.'s c.'s in the sensory epithelium of the maculae and cristae of the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear; afferent and efferent nerve fibers of the vestibular nerve end synaptically upon them; from the apical end of each c. a bundle of stereocilia and a kinocilium extend into the statoconial membrane of the maculae and the cupula of the cristae.
Virchow's c.'s 1. the lacunae in osseous tissue containing the bone c.'s; also the bone c.'s themselves; 2. corneal corpuscles, under corpuscle
virus-transformed c. a c. that has been genetically changed to a tumor c., the change being subsequently tramsmitted to all descendent c.'s; c.'s transformed by oncornaviruses continue to produce virus in high concentration without being killed; DNA tumor virus-transformed c.'s develop (along with other changes) tumor-associated antigens and rarely produce virus.
visual receptor c.'s the rod and cone c.'s of the retina.
vitreous c. a c. occurring in the peripheral part of the vitreous body that may be responsible for production of hyaluronic acid and possibly of collagen.hyalocyte;
wandering c. ameboid c
Warthin-Finkeldey c.'s giant c.'s with multiple overlapping nuclei, found in lymphoid tissue in measles, especially during the prodromal stage.
wasserhelle c. water-clear c. of parathyroid
water-clear c. of parathyroid a variety of chief c., so-called because the cytoplasm contains much glycogen that is not preserved or stained in the usual preparation.wasserhelle c;
white blood c. (WBC) leukocyte
WI-38 c.'s the first normal human cells, derived from fetal lung tissue, continuously cultivated. [Wistar Institute]
wing c. one of the polyhedral c.'s in the corneal epithelium beneath the surface layer.
yolk c.'s primitive embryonic c.'s lying between the endoderm and mesoderm; they probably give rise to the endothelium of vitelline vessels.
zymogenic c. a c. that secretes an enzyme; specifically a chief c. of a gastric gland or an acinar c. of the pancreas.albuminous c. (2) , chief c. of stomach, peptic c;
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