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chain (chan)

1. In chemistry, a series of atoms held together by one or more covalent bonds. 2. In bacteriology, a linear arrangement of living cells that have divided in one plane and remain attached to each other. [L. catena]
A c. 1. a polypeptide component of insulin containing 21 amino acyl residues, beginning with a glycyl residue (NH2-terminus); insulin is formed by the linkage of an A c. to a B c. by two disulfide bonds; the amino-acid composition of the A c. is a function of species;glycyl c; 2. in general, one of the polypeptides in a multiprotein complex.
B c. a polypeptide component of insulin containing 30 amino acyl residues, beginning with a phenylalanyl residue (NH2-terminus); insulin is formed by the linkage of a B c. to an A c. by two disulfide bonds; the amino-acid composition of the B c. is a function of species.phenylalanyl c;
behavior c. related behaviors in a series in which each response serves as a stimulus for the next response.
C c. C-peptide
cold c. a system of protection against high environmental temperatures for heat-labile vaccines, sera and other biological preparations.
electron-transport c. respiratory c
glycyl c. A c. (1)
heavy c. a polypeptide c. of high molecular weight (about 400-500 residue), gamma, a, mu, delta, or epsi c.'s in immunoglobulin, determining the immunoglobulin class and subclass.H chain;
hemolytic c. the hemolysis that occurs when complement is activated by the previously formed union of erythrocytes and specific antibody.
J c. a glycopeptide disulfide that is bonded to polymeric IgA and IgM; its function is to ensure correct polymerization of the subunits of IgA and IgM. [joining]
L c. light c
light c. a polypeptide c. with low molecular weight (about 200 residue), as the kappa or lambda c.'s in immunoglobulin.L c;
long c. in bacteriology, a continuous line of more than eight cells.
ossicular c. auditory ossicles, under ossicle
phenylalanyl c. B c
respiratory c. a sequence of energy-liberating oxidation-reduction reactions whereby electrons are accepted from reduced compounds and eventually transferred to oxygen with the formation of water.cytochrome system, electron-transport c., electron-transport system;
short c. in bacteriology, a string of two to eight cells.
side c. 1. a c. of noncyclic atoms linked to a benzene ring, or to any cyclic c. compound; 2. the atoms of an a-amino acid other than the a-carboxyl group, the a-amino group, the a-carbon, and the hydrogen attached to the a-carbon.


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