1. (v.) To regulate, restrain, correct, restore to normal. 2. (n. or adj.) Ongoing operations or programs aimed at reducing or eliminating a disease. 3. (n.) Person(s) in a comparison group that differs in disease experience or allocation to a regimen from the subjects of a study. 4. (v). In statistics, to adjust or take into account extraneous influences. [Mediev. L. contrarotulum, a counterroll for checking accounts, fr. L. rotula, dim. of rota, a wheel]
autogenous c. regulation by the action of a gene product on the gene that codes for that product.
aversive c. control of the behavior of another individual by use of psychologically noxious means; e.g., attempting to force better study habits by withholding a child's allowance, or withholding sexual contact unless the partner complies with a request.
biological c. c. of living organisms, including vectors and reservoirs of disease, by using their natural enemies (predators, parasites, competitors).
birth c. 1. restriction of the number of offspring by means of contraceptive measures; 2. projects, programs, or methods to control reproduction, by either improving or diminishing fertility.
idiodynamic c. nervous impulses from the medulla that preserve the normal trophic condition of the muscles.
negative c. regulation of an enzyme activity by an inhibitor of that enzyme or regulation of a protein by repression of transcription.
own c.'s a method of experimental c. in which the same subjects are used in both experimental and c. conditions.
positive c. regulation of an enzyme activity by an activator of that enzyme. Also, regulation via induction of a specific protein's biosynthesis or activation of a protein's processing.
quality c. the c. of laboratory analytical error by monitoring analytical performance with control sera and maintaining error within established limits around the mean control values, most commonly ±2 SD.
reflex c. nerve impulses transmitted to the muscles to maintain normal reflex action.
social c. the influence on the behavior of a person exerted by other persons or by society as a whole; e.g., through appropriate social norms, ostracism, or the criminal law.
stimulus c. the use of conditioning techniques to bring the target behavior of an individual under environmental c. See classical conditioning.
synergic c. impulses transmitted from the cerebellum regulating the muscular activity of the synergic units of the body.
time-varied gain c. (TGC) time-gain compensation
tonic c. nerve impulses that maintain a normal tonus or level of activity in muscle or other effector organs.
vestibulo-equilibratory c. nerve impulses transmitted from the semicircular canals, saccule, and utricle that serve to maintain the equilibrium of the body.
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